Annual Overview

1997 has been an extremely busy and fruitful year for The Vetiver Network (TVN). The use of vetiver grass for erosion control, stabilization of engineering works, land rehabilitation and pollution control has steadily expanded during 1997. Extended applications backed by confirmatory research results have further underscored the usefulness of the vetiver grass technology. There is no doubt that in the years ahead this unique grass, when planted as a narrow barrier hedgerow across the slope of the land, has a very important role to play for the mitigation of a wide range of environmental problems related to natural resources management.

The highlights of the year have centered on TVN's Vetiver Network Support Project (VNSP) that is being funded through generous contributions of the Royal Danish Government, the Amberstone Trust (UK), and the World Bank. VNSP has achieved all its 1997 objectives and more. Specifically it has:

  • assisted in, and in most cases funded, the establishment of nine regional and national vetiver networks. These include regional networks for Europe and the Mediterranean, Latin America, Southern Africa, West Africa, and the Pacific Rim; and national networks for China, Madagascar, the Philippines, and Thailand;

  • supported, with grant funds non profit organizations in Cameroon, China, Ecuador, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Nepal, the Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, and Venezuela to initiate and develop vetiver programs for soil erosion and water conservation ;

Madagascar -- Mr. Alain Pierre (left) agriculture manager of Project CAP and an NGO colleague looking at a well grown two year old vetiver hedgerow, promoted by the NGO -- ANAE, on a cassava farm near Mahajanga. Recently a Vetiver Network for Madagascar has been established with assistance from TVN.


  • supported, with grant funds, vetiver related research in China and Australia;

  • published and distributed two (4000 per edition) comprehensive newsletters (#17 and #18);

  • supported numerous development organizations and users with the provision of slide sets, videos, books, CD-ROMS and other papers; redeveloped TVN's homepage site on the Internet; and

  • provided special support (visits by TVN coordinator) to southern Africa, China, and Madagascar to pursue the development of new vetiver initiatives in the regions and countries concerned.

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Guinea -- Linus Folly, Coordinator of the West Africa Vetiver Network, has promoted the use of vetiver in Guinea for soil and water conservation. Here a farmer and his family is planting a vetiver hedgerow to protect steep and eroded land.

The Vetiver Network Support Project (November 1996 through December 1998) has thus far cost US $242,000 of which US$ 226,000 was expended on support programs for: regional and national networks, non profit organizations, special research programs, and information generation and distribution; and US$ 16,000 on administrative overheads. US$ 143,000 of the grant from the Royal Danish Government was expended during this period. New commitments are likely to be made during 1998 to support non profit programs in Cameroon, India, South Africa and Haiti.


Regional and National Networks

As planned these networks are turning out to be critical for the expansion of the use and application of the technology by users. The operational results of these networks have been excellent, and all of them are doing more than originally expected of them. Not only are they publishing newsletters (often in the national language), but they are taking on independent activist roles in vetiver promotion. The China and Philippine Networks have held important workshops for training and awareness purposes; additional funds have been raised to expand local activities, regional coordinators and committees have been established at various sub-levels to support local interest groups, and a wide range of activities have taken place, including both research and development. Liyu Xu (CVN) and Ed Balbarino (VETNETPHIL) are two extraordinary dedicated coordinators who with their colleagues have actively promoted vetiver in their respective countries. Ed Balbarino states "that in all his 30 years of development work the vetiver technology is by far the easiest technology to promote"

The West African Vetiver Network, after a slow start, has picked up considerable momentum and with its Newsletter "The Ideal Farmer" is making itself well known in that Region.

El Slavador -- The commercial company NOBS works with agriculture and engineering groups. This image shows newly planted vetiver hedgerows being used to strengthen and stabilize a stream bank and culvert (generally an area of weakness, and often damaged at the time of high velocity river flows). NOBS has proved a very good example of how a vetiver commercial company can operate. It has been supported by the Latin America Vetiver Network.

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Special efforts have been made in Guinea, in conjunction with Sasakawa Global 2000, where vetiver is now seen as an important conservation technology. We can expect an even greater demand develop in 1998. Linus Folly, the coordinator of WAVN, has been working tirelessly in the dissemination of the technology, and has established an excellent rapport with communities and policy makers in many of the regions countries.

In southern Africa the Southern Africa Vetiver Network has published three newsletters and is starting to put into place some new initiatives in South Africa itself (Mpumalanga and Kwa Zulu-Natal). Reports from elsewhere in the region indicates considerable activity. Special efforts have been made in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Duncan Hay, SAVN's coordinator, has rightly placed most of his efforts to date in South Africa itself, where, outside of the mining industry, the technology is the least developed. The greatest hurdles to overcome are improving the dissemination of information and increasing the availability of vetiver planting material.

South Africa - - Vetiver hedgerows used to stabilize a real estate development constuction site embankment. This work was carried out by private contractor, Tony Tantum, a leading vetiver technologist in South Africa, and a key resource person for the Southern Africa Vetiver Network.

Malaysia -- A fill slope (55 - 60) and drainage apptoaches of a large highway in Malaysia protected and strengthened with vetiver grass hedgerows. Note the use of both biologicaal and structural engineering. Vetiver grass has great tensile root strength and and improves the shear strength of fragile soils. These techniques are now, with the help of the Vetiver Net Network, being disseminated to other parts of the world

The Latin America Network, that publishes in Spanish, has greatly expanded its membership in Central America, and hopes to do more in South America in the coming year. Joan Miller, the network's coordinator, has done much to expand information flows about vetiver, and her Spanish written newsletter has received a very good reception in the region. Some excellent work has been carried out by the private sector company, NOBS, in El Salvador where it is meeting the needs of marginal farmers and government engineers. NOBS has show clearly that the commercial sector has an important role in vetiver development and it is hoped to replicate its operations in other countries. In Nicaragua NGO operations are expanding, and in Costa Rica there seems to be a wide spread acceptance of the technology. In Mexico and Venezuela NGOs are developing sound vetiver programs with the focus on soil conservation and have the full support of TVN and LAVN.




Australia, Queensland - - A railroad embankment stabilized with vetiver grass hedgerows. This embankment is now fully stable, and reflects how vetiver can be used by engineers for stabilization of earth works. This work was initiated by Dr. Paul Truong, who has done much to promote vetiver technology in Australia and the world at large.

The Pacific Rim Vetiver Network has published two newsletters, and is working on some other technical publications for distribution. Dr. Narong Chomchalow is the editor of the newsletter, and has made his presence felt throughout the region. Some outstanding development of the use of vetiver on large scale engineering projects in Malaysia have been demonstrated by Diti Hengchaovanich, CEO of the construction company EROCON. In Queensland, Australia, under the guidance of Paul Truong, we have seen expanding agricultural, highway, and mining interest in the technology. The latest development is the use of vetiver for the rehabilitation of large coal mine tailings area.

In Europe and the Mediterranean area EUROMEDVETNET, coordinated by Mike Pease, has been super active in searching for potential vetiver adopters, and is about to move into a trials and demonstration program across the Mediterranean area, if funding is made available by the EEC. This work will be an important step forward to testing vetiver's utilization in dry areas with winter rainfall.Todate the plantings in southern Spain (Lorca) have proven successful.


Late in 1997 a major TVN initiative was made in Madagascar in conjunction with the local World Bank office, USAID, Chemonics International, and Project CAP. As a result a Madagascar Vetiver Network has been established, and the first Newsletter in French (this will be helpful to WAVN French speaking participating countries) has been published. Government agencies (particularly highways and railroads), NGOs and the private sector are working together to expand the use of vetiver for a wide range of agriculture, land rehabilitation and engineering purposes. The new Network is coordinated by Ms. Voahangy Randriambololona with support from Criss Juliard of Project CAP. Their enthusiasm is infectious and they are deadly serious about how the technology should play a key role in stabilizing Madagascar's resources. New networks are now being considered for Viet Nam and India, we hope to report more on these in the 1998 Annual Report.

China-- Vetiver grass hedgeroes used on Pintang Island. off the Fujian coast, for protection of young jojoba trees against wind erosion. Vetiver also prevents, under these site conditions, damage to soil from winf erosion, when hedgerovs are planted 20 m apart

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Detailed annual reports from some of these networks can be found at annexure 1, and make good reading. Overall the regional and national networks have shown their capability and local advantage of dealing with vetiver related issues and for innovative initiatives in moving the technology forward. In both Philippines and China the networks have made mini grants to users and practical institutions to test and develop vetiver applications. Special acknowledgment should be made of the work of Xia Hanping and his colleagues from the South China Institute of Botany who have aptly demonstrated the use of vetiver for highway stabilization and pollution waste control, and Madam Zhang's work in the coastal areas of Fujian Province where vetiver has been used to stabilize coastal sand dunes, and for crop protection against strong winds. The mini grant concept is a good one, and is well within the capability of the local networks to administer.

All the network coordinators understand that the biggest constraint to the further adoption of the technology is technology dissemination, training and the supply of planting material. Priority is being given to these important topics.

The networks have used TVN funds well, and have made a few dollars go an extraordinary long way. The message is clear that there are lots of capable people within the networks who are interested in sustainable agriculture and natural resource conservation and who can be very effective if provided a minimum and catalytic supply of funds. US$ 15,000 per network per year is not a lot of money, but it has been used very effectively to leverage additional funding and to provide the impetus to get program started. These networks are by no means self supporting and will, like TVN, need further funding support beyond 1998.

China - - Vetiver hedgerows protecting river banks in the coastal areas of Fujian. Note in the winter time the hedges "die" back but soon recover in the spring. These particular hedgerows have survived salt water innundation when a cyclone caused serious flooding in this area in 1993. The China Vetiver Network, coordinated by Liyu Xu, is disseminating this technology throughout southern China.

Support To Non Profit Organizations

TVN has funded 14 organizations and overall the performance has been good. TVN has received adequate reports backed by photographs that indicate that funds are being used as intended, i.e. the initiation of vetiver programs at local and community level. In most instances TVN funds have been used as a catalyst to get things started. The fact that TVN made a grant has made it easier for the organizations to attract other funds or to allocate some of their general budget resources to the vetiver programs. In the end TVN funds are only a small part of overall expenditure and effort provided by the non profit organization. In each case the user organization and its key staff were convinced of the value of vetiver prior to receiving the grant. Some, such as Munchen fur Munchen in Ethiopia, had already taken a leadership role in disseminating the technology beyond its immediate area of operations. As a result of TVN's support it is confidently expected that most of these vetiver programs will have impact on a much wider audience than originally projected.


The Cameroon initiative is led by Mr. Ngwainmbi Simon, a medical worker for the Baptist Church. With virtually no funding, but with guts and tenacity, and great faith in his people Mr. Simon has worked tirelessly on promoting vetiver technology for the past seven years. In 1997 TVN provided funds for a workshop in the NW Province for 250 attendees, and for the key resource person Mr. Alemu Mekonnen of Ethiopia. As a result of the workshop a project was developed by the local people Belo Rural Development Project (BERUDEP). BERUDEP has developed links with some 15 other organizations for the promotion of the technology. TVN is satisfied with the progress that has taken place and will provide BERUDEP with a further US$ 12,000 for 1998 and 1999 for the development of additional nurseries in the Bamenda area and for the training of more farmers, NGO's and technicians.

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Cameroon - - Mr. Ngwainmbi Simon, coordinator of the TVN supported NGO -- BERUDEP, shows an improved potato harvest due to vetiver hedgerows planted on erosion prone hillsides in NW Cameroon, near Bamenda.


TVN has made small grants to three organizations in Ethiopia Munchen fur Munchen; Inter-Aide France; and a regional Integrated Food Security Project. In all three cases funds were used for establishing vetiver nurseries, provision of plant material to users, training of technicians and users in the technology and its application. Feedback from Ethiopia indicates that there are now many government agencies and NGOs using vetiver in Ethiopia. Vetiver is probably the most important and effective conservation technology that should be used to protect Ethiopia's land and infrastructure assets.


South Africa

TVN funded a well established NGO, ECOLINK, located in Mpumalanga Province (the former Easter Transvaal), for the training of community leaders in the vetiver technology. Three workshops were held and a general awareness program was initiated for the people of the province. Vetiver planting material was used for demonstration plantings in the White River area. As a result of these efforts, and the interest that has been shown by the commercial sector, farmers and communities, a project is now under preparation which will move the program forward on a much larger and wider scale. The Project will be under agreement with the Anglican Diocese of South Africa (Eastern Transvaal) with support from the Southern Africa Vetiver Network. Funds (US$ 120,000) will be raised locally, and key support will be provided by commercial enterprises such as Dickon Hall and Sons (one of the largest producers of processed fruits in the area and a distiller of vetiver oil) and by TVN. TVN will provide US$ 10,000 to help get the project started. This will be a key project for South Africa and it will run in parallel to a similar vetiver program in Kwa Zulu-Natal. Both programs will impact poor farmers on marginal and degraded land (previous "homelands").


TVN has supported the Kaengesa Environmental Conservation Society (KAESO) in the highly eroded but potentially fertile area of Sumbawanga (Lake Rukwa area) of Tanzania. KAESO established a central vetiver nursery and has trained staff and users at a vetiver workshop. It has given video (TVN video) shows and has trained farmers in 10 villagers. Additionally 560,000 splits of vetiver have been distributed to farmers. This is sufficient for 18 km of hedgerows. A lot of enthusiasm has been generated amongst local farmers. KAESO is receiving technical advice from Mr. Alfred Mbegu, a local resident who previously worked on a vetiver program elsewhere in Tanzania. TVN has allocated additional funds to KAESO for 1998 to enable this initiative to continue and expand to new villages.


TVN has supported the Community Development and Welfare Society (CWDS) in Nepal. CWDS works primarily in the hills. Vetiver has been planted to stabilize farm terraces. The vetiver handbook has been translated and published in Nepali, and is being distributed widely to users. Although the program todate has not been spectacular, a solid start has been made, and we can expect to see wider adoption in 1988.

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TVN support to Sociedad Conservacionista Aragua (SCA) is leading to a well planned investigation of vetiver in Venezuela and for its future use for conservation. SCA's technical leader,Oscar Rodriguez, has

been recognized nationally for his vetiver initiatives. In its first year SCA has identified traditional sources of vetiver in the interior of Venezuela, has run a number of workshops, established demonstrations, and has supported LAVN in the dissemination of information about the technology to other parts of Latin America. SCA is working with other NGOs and agencies to establish vetiver propagation units and to train potential users. TVN videos (in Spanish), slides and other teaching material has proven very useful in SCA's work.


TVN awarded a two year grant to the NGO "LASOS" for vetiver initiatives with communities located in Oaxaca State. LASOS works as part of the Program for Erosion Control and the Restoration of Soils of Oaxaca (PERCES). LASOS is working in 10 locations with small farmers groups, (4 women's groups, 2 local farmers groups, 2 community authorities and 2 NGOs). In the past two years 5 km of hedgerow were planted, and 33 nurseries, 30 demonstartion sites, 17 research projects have been established in 5 regions. More than 300 farmers, researchers and extensionists, including 40 women, have been involved in workshops, trainings, planting and maintenance activities. Vetiver hedgerows have worked well, and reports of their effectiveness for soil conservation seem well founded. The PERCES vetiver program has shown what can be achieved when a comprehensive and coordinated approach is taken, and where the communities are seen to be central to the program and its success. Jim Smyle and Joan Miller (Director and Coordinator of the Latin America Vetiver Network) have visited Oaxaca and have provided technical assistance to PERCES and LASOS. The program provides an excellent lesson as to how communities, NGOs, Universities and government agencies can work together to achieve a common objective it is the commonly owned "vetiver technology" that provides the focus.

As a result of the success in Oaxaca, the PERCES members are a supporting and providing training for a major erosion control project in the State of Mexico where vetiver will be a major component.


Euador - - Quote from Fundacion Golondrinas (FG) "The first step in restoring land is by planting hedges of grass or bush in contour lines. FG has selected Vetiver Grass for its amazing performance, its ability to stop run-off and build up 'induced terraces'..". Here we see Maria-Eliza Manteca Onate, the founder of FG, showing just how much sediment has been built up behind a vetiver hedegerow on very steep and degraded lands in the Mira Valley of NW Ecuador. There are many countries in South America who should take advantage of vetiver grass technology - - they don't - - for the simple reason that people don't know about the technology. LAVN is working hard to get information to where it is needed.



TVN is supporting the Ecuadorian NGO Fundacion Golondrinas (FG). Because of the impact of El Nino there were serious fires in the project area, and the program has not progressed as fast as expected. However, it has shown the need for good demonstration, if farmers are to be persuaded to adopt the technology and the fire tolerance of vetiver hedgerows. Even so FG has proven that vetiver will grow well on the badly eroded and completely deforested area of the Mira Valley. Furthermore the demonstration impact is starting to impact on local residents and on potential users elsewhere in Ecuador. FG will therefore focus on establishing demonstrations that show the impact of vetiver protection on crops, particularly pineapples.

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Ausralia - - The mining industry in Queensland is very interested in using vetiver grass to rehabilitate coal minewaste land. This work has been pioneered by Dr.Paul Truong of the Department of Natural Resources, Queensland, through his research that showed vetiver to be tolerant to acid sulphate soils and a wide range of heavy metals. This image shows a before and after impact of vetiver on wasted mine land.

Spexcial Vetiver Support Grants

TVN provided special support grants to the South China Institute of Botany (Mr. Xia Hanping) and the Queensland Department of Natural Resources ( Dr. Paul Truong) for vetiver research programs. Mr Hanpink and his collegues, received US$ 5,000 grant from TVN, and have undertaken practical vetiver research on highway stabilisation, prufication of leachates from municipal garbage sites, a study of a natural colony of vetiver wetlands, and a review of vetiver propagation techniques developed in China in the 1950's. The studies and findings have been reported on in TVN newsletters and on TVN's website. The results have application in China and elsewhere.

The vetiver grants to Dr. Truong, one of the networks leading vetiver research and development specialists, who has carried out some outstanding work on vetiver's tolerance to high levels of heavy metals and its consequent application for pollution mitigation, have been used to assist graduate students at Central Queensland University undertake research. The research that is currently underway includes: stabilization of prawn farm bunds (vetiver has proven to perform well in mangrove habitat); scanning electron microscope studies in salt stressed vetiver plants; ecological studies of vetiver; studies of endomycorrhizal fungi for vetiver grass; and modeling the flow through vetiver grass hedges on steep slopes. The results of these experiments will be shared with regional and national networks.





Vetiver Network Newsletters And Other Means Of Disseminating Information About The Vetiver Technology

TVN has produce two newsletters during 1997, and these were distributed to about 4,000 people. These newsletters are also placed on TVN's homepage at TVN has been conducting a survey of newsletter readers, and todate it would seem that with the establishment of regional networks and the production of newsletters in local languages that TVN will, as planned, be able to cut back significantly on the number of newsletters printed and distributed. It is estimated that the 1998 newsletters will be distributed to less than 2,000 recipients. The newsletters are large and comprehensive and provide for the publishing of most papers that are written on vetiver. The TVN newsletter is recognized as one of the best technical newsletters in circulation. 

It is TVN's intention to supplement (and part replace) the newsletter by expanding the TVN web site; by producing CD-ROMs that contain key information, such as all back issues of the newsletters and photo images of vetiver applications (one has just been produced containing some 700 vetiver images); and the establishment of an ftp site ( that can be used, amongst other things as an accessible public archive for vetiver research literature. These actions should be the cheapest and most effective way of storing and disseminating information to those who have access to the Internet and who use computers (it is cheaper to make and send a CD-ROM than it is to print and mail an 80 page newsletter). The regional and national networks have shown that they can competently produce relevant and readable hard copy newsletters in the appropriate local language, and they can all access our Internet sites electronically. TVN has the capability of doing all these things, and is in the process of doing them.

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China - - The Vetiver Network has supported the South China Institute of Botany in its vetiver research. Above is an area in Guangdong Province known as "the Red Desert" that was totally denuded (left) until vetiver was planted along with trees. Vetiver stabilized the land, reduced the velocity of erosive flows of water and accelerated tree growth (right - two years after planting vetiver).


Conclusions Drawn From 1997 Operations

TVN's decision to move its operations downwards and outwards has been fully justified. As a result many more potential users of the vetiver technology have been identified and are now participating in vetiver activities. The regional and national networks have proven, even in their first year of operations, to be competent and effective operators, and all have a deep commitment and belief in the technology. The Networks have the capability of producing good information for dissemination and all are "activist" in their approach.

TVN's support to non profit organizations appear to be worthwhile. Not only do these non profit organizations' activities support and benefit the immediate communities, but they also provide concrete evidence to other agencies and potential users in a particular country that the technology is sound and meets the needs of the users, particularly those who are very poor and are getting poorer due to their degrading natural resource assets. Farmers who use the technology correctly, at very little cost, can improve and sustain their incomes and their land when they use vetiver grass hedgerows. Evidence from most of those awarded TVN grants support the latter conclusion. In future it would be better from a selection and monitoring point of view that these small grants are administered by the networks with some review and assistance by TVN.


TVN's move to improve the flow of information through high tech methods makes sound sense, and has already paid off. The access to TVN's homepage site has more than doubled over the past year, and the use of CD-ROMS is proving a useful and cheap way of moving bulk information and images to vetiver "organizers" around the world. The reduction in the number of newsletters to be printed and distributed in 1998 is fully justified.

By the end of 1998 TVN's Vetiver Network Support Project will be completed, and TVN will have little funding resources available for future operations. What has been achieved by everybody is magnificent, and it must continue in order to get this unique grass and associated technology out in front of the public. TVN's Board of Directors requested the TVN coordinator to seek additional funds for a second phase VNSP for the years 1999 - 2001. Based on our conclusions funds are needed to expand the number of networks, to support NGO operations via the networks, to support research, and to assure that the relatively low cost high tech flow of information continues. To this end TVN will, by end April 1998, put out a proposal to international donors for funding support.

1997 Accounts

The audited accounts and the independent auditors report are attached at Annexure 2. The Network completed 1997 assets of US$ 241,000 (including a cash balance of US$ 78,000 and a commitment of US$ 150,000 from the Royal Danish Government). Since the end of the 1997 accounting year we gratefully acknowledge the receipt of a US$ 60,000 grant from the Amberstone Trust (UK). These latter funds are already committed to, amongst others, supporting four non profit organizations initiate new vetiver development and training programs.

In accordance with the rules relating to grants made by the Royal Danish Government a special schedule is included in the audited accounts that sets out the expenditure of the Danish grant funds.

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China - - Jiangxi Province, where vetiver grass hedge rows have been planted since 1988 for stabilizing citrus orchards. These same hedges provide wind breaks for the young plants against the cold winter winds, and also, when cut, is used for mulch, forage and thatch.

1998 and 1999 Budget

The budgets for these two years are at Annexure 3. The 1998 budget of US$ 245,000 has assured funding, and the greatly reduced budget of US$ 41,000 for 1999 is 75% funded to cover US $16,000 committed to non profit organization vetiver programs, and the absolute minimum to administer TVN. It does not include any funds for the second phase of VNSP. The 1999 budget will be modified later this year as a result of the responses that we receive from potential donors for the new project.

TVN 1998 Activities

TVN will focus on the following:

  • Providing technical and funding support to the existing nine regional and national networks and fourteen non profit organizations.

  • Funding four new identified vetiver initiatives managed by nonprofit organizations.

  • Publishing two newsletters, and further develop high tech transfer of technology as outlined above.

  • Prepare a funding proposal for support by international donors for the second phase of the Vetiver Network Support Project 1999 - 2001.
  • Reviewing research and development submissions for the Vetiver Awards Program ($50,000).

  • Working with the Southern Africa Vetiver Network to prepare the ground work for the Second International Vetiver Conference to be held in South Africa in 2000.


Research and Development Paper

It has become customary to include (Annexure 4) in the annual report an article or paper that is considered to be of significance for the adoption of the vetiver technology. This year the honor falls to a Thai national, Mr. Diti Hengchaovanich, CEO of Malaysia's EROCON construction company, whose paper is titled "Slope Stability Enhancement, and Erosion Mitigation by Vetiver Grass in Engineering Appplications". The paper gives a very good overview of vetiver's role and application for civil engineering projects.


The Vetiver Network takes this opportunity to thank our three key donors -- The Royal Danish Government, the Amberstone Trust (UK), and the World Bank for their support and funds -- without them we would not be where we are today. We also have to thank all the vetiver users, world wide, who through their hard work and interest have contributed so much to moving forward the frontiers of knowledge about this unique grass. This new knowledge and the various actions that have gone with it, has improved the livelihood, amongst others, of tens of thousands of small and marginal farmers in rural areas throughout the developing world. The technology has been adopted because it is cheap, easy to understand, and it works.

Richard G Grimshaw

President and Coordinator, The Vetiver Network

March 15 1998

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