Status Of Vetiver Grass In Upland Farming Development In Indonesia (Contradiction Between Soil Conservation And Farmers' Utility Orientation)
Agus Hermawan. Institute for the Assessment of Agricultural Technology Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAAT-AARD), Indonesia.

There are two kinds of soil conservation techniques developed by Farming Systems Research (FSR) component of Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD) of Indonesia, i.e. mechanical and vegetative. Vegetative soil conservation includes cropping pattern arrangement, tree plantation, grasses and legumes as terraces strengthen on strips and alley cropping systems. In that case, vetiver as grass barrier could control run off and decrease 'CP' factor and land erodability lower than control plot, as well as increase organic matter on soil. On alley system, vetiver could control erosion to 13.21 and 0.56 ton at second and third years respectively (in average erosion on control plot was 120.08 ton/year), while height of ridge soil at third year was 29.7 cm lower than Flemingia (38.9 cm) and Caliandra (39.7 cm). But, adoption of farmers' upland on vetiver plantation were low. Resources limitation of upland farmers led them on short term orientation, and they only adopt technologies that give direct benefit. In that case, farmers more prefer plant other grasses (such as king grass, elephant grass and setaria) or legumes (Fiemingia, Gliricidia, Leucaena, etc.) on alley system. Grasses and legumes were planted by famers for fodder and fuel wood, but not for soil conservation orientation. Lower forages production and palatability of livestock on vetiver grass compared with other grasses and legumes being the cause.

The Adoption Of Vetiver Extension For Highland Farmers
Vitat Tachaboon. Hill-tribe Welfare Division, Public Welfare Department, Thailand.

The objective of this study is to investigate the adoption behavior and the cultivation of Vetiver by farmers in the highlands by collecting data from the areas under the responsibility of the Hill Tribe Development Centers, covering 14 provinces with a sampling of 1,433 farmers.

It was found that 401 farmers or 27.98 percent of the sampled farmers had grown Vetiver since 1992, which occupied 35.45 percent of the holding areas of the Vetiver growing farmers. There were 18.70 percent of Vetiver growing farmers planning to grow more Vetiver in 1995.

As for the reasons to participate in the Vetiver growing project, 74.81 percent of farmers claimed that the reason was from the introduction of the project officials, there were 14.96 per cent wished to replace other alley crops, 66.58 percent to reduce soil erosion, 47.88 per cent to improve soil fertility and 17.95 per cent wish to keep using their land forever. Besides, there were 30.17 percent of farmers who joined the Vetiver growing project in order to obtain land ownership or land rights.

Studying the use of land between the Vetiver rows revealed that most farmers were using every field every year. For the use of Vetiver, 45.14 percent of Vetiver growing farmers made use of it, commonly used for feeding animals. Besides, the 33.67 percent of growers also introduced Vetiver growing to the other persons, which mostly their neighbors and relatives.

In terms of farmers' attitudes towards the effect of Vetiver growing; the study showed that both the Vetiver growers and non Vetiver growers had similar opinions of requiring more labour and time for Vetiver management.

The analysis of relationship between the adoption of Vetiver and certain socioeconomic factors using Chi-square test revealed that the differences of ethnicity, social status, number of family labour and sources of information were significantly correlated with growing Vetiver. It was also found that the farmers who used to grow other alley crops grew higher proportion of Vetiver than the ones who had never grown alley cropping before.

Studying the relationship between the information transferred from various sources and the reasons to participate in Vetiver cultivation project showed that the farmers who received the information from the other sources that were not persons or that were not involved with persons had a smaller proportion of land use between the Vetiver row than the ones who received from the person or person-involved sources. It was also found that the farmers who participate in the Vetiver project concerning erosion control had a higher proportion of land use between the Vetiver row, as well as a more expansion than the one who joined the project because of the other reasons.

Environment And Socio-Economic Values Of Vetiver; A Miracle Grass.
MD. Faziul Huq. Proshika 1/1 -9A, Section -2, Mirpur-2, Dhaka- 1216, Bangladesh

Vetiver is a familiar grass growing on the flood plain soil of Bangladesh. It is commonly grown as a fodder in the rural areas. In the rural condition, this grass has high economic value. Vetiver is a fast growing species of indigenous fodder. The plants become 2-3 feet high with leaves and soft body. The leaves and stems are soft and palatable to the animals. The marshy and wet land is favorable for vetiver cultivation. The small scale dairy and livestock farmer cultivate this grass in their limited Agricultural land in between two principal crops. Sometimes Vetiver is cultivated as a relay crop. The vetiver has high nutritive value for Dairy cattle and Beef fattening animals. The goat and sheep herders also use the fodder as a popular forage. The animals with other balanced feed and vetiver show a remarkable body of gain within a short period. Small scale farmers benefit both socially and economically. The cultivation of vetiver helps both soil erosion and fertility of the land which gives environmental protection. So the socio-economic value of vetiver is quite satisfactory for the poor farmers in a country like Bangladesh.

Socio-Economic Dimensions Of Vetiver In Rainfed Areas Of Karnataka (India)
K.N. Ranganatha Sastry. State Government of Karnataka, India

The vegetative measures for soil and moisture conservation is most warranted for various reasons like protection of ecology and environment, cost effectiveness, sustenance, simplicity in adoption, familiarity of operations among the farming community. This is being increasingly felt at academic, policy and planning levels. There is a need to translate this concept sufficiently at the execution level. Among the various species available for vegetative approach, Khus (Vetiveria zizanioides) has various uses because of its versatile features. It can function as an independent measure, can initiate vegetative measures with other species, supplement other species in vegetative measures. Because of simultaneous existence of Xerophytic and Hydrophytic characters (as revealed by structure of its tissues), it can adapt under various agro-climatic settings. The cost of multiplication of slips, planting, developing into a hedge and maintenance is far less compared to earthen and masonry measures. Once introduced into a region and the farmers are convinced, it can expand without the intervention of government agencies. These facts have been supported by tables, photographs and slides as experienced in Karnataka (India).

Uses Put Of Vetiver Nigritana In Northern Nigeria -- A Case Of Bauchi State
Ahmed U. Ibrahim. Bauchi State Agricultural Development Programme, Soil Conservation /Agroforestry Component, Nigeria.

The paper high lights the uses which Vetiver nigritana is put to in Northern Nigeria. The locally available grass species in the region is known by the local farmers as a gift of nature to settle farm boundary disputes from many centuries ago.

The uses of the grass include, hedge rows, farm boundaries demarcation, thatch, mat, mulen, rope, hand crafts, and pest repellent. Supporting evidence with film slides and some empirical data are provided. Vetiver nigritana has established it's potentials from it's vast uses as important in both soil/moisture conservation and source of revenue generation to the African peasant farmer.

Farm Household Center: A Basis For Extension And Transfer Of Vetiver Technology.
Kuscahyo Budi Prayogo. Agricultural In formation Center -Central Java., Indonesia

The existing situation related to vetiver extension activities in Central Java is discussed. Although Java is the leading producer of vetiver oil, in some places people are convinced that vetiver actually causes erosion. Farmers themselves think that vetiver is not profitable economically. These problems basically show the failure in executing extension and research approaches. Upland watershed farming system need to be approached and analyzed from three key perspectives, i.e. technical factor, socioeconomic factors and agroecological factors.

Socioeconomic factors have great influence in determining farmers preferences in doing their farming system. Vetiver, as a single plant is considered unprofitable. That is the reason that farm household living in upland watershed are more likely to choose other grasses. However, as an integral part of an upland farming development, vetiver has the best role in controlling soil and water erosion. It is essential to reconsider the way researchers and extension workers do their activities in upland watershed.

Cost Comparison In Producing Vetiver Grass From Different Methods Of Production
Sumol Sopakorn, Wichai Suwanakert and Darunee Kaewvichien. Land Development Department, Ministry of Agricultural and Cooperatives, Bangkok, Thailand.

According to the high demand of using vetiver grass for soil and water conservation from many government agencies, it is necessary to find the best and quickest method of producing vetiver grass for good quality, low cost etc.

The study was carried out into 2 steps:
(1) By planting vetiver directly into the plastic bag, the field and greenhouse.
(2) After the first step divided the tillers of vetiver grass from the plastic bag, field and greenhouse and plant them again in the plastic bag.

The results from the study showed that the cost of producing vetiver grass were:

1. Cost for the first step

1.1 Cost of producing vetiver's shoot in the plastic bag was 0.12 Baht.
1.2 Cost of producing vetiver's shoot in the field was 0.08 Baht.
1.3 Cost of producing vetiver's shoot in the greenhouse was 0.20 Baht.

2. Cost for the two steps

2.1 Cost of producing vetiver's shoot again from the plastic bag was 1.65 Baht.
2.2 Cost of producing vetiver's shoot again from the field was 1.61 Baht.
2.3 Cost of producing vetiver's shoot again from the greenhouse was 1.73 Baht.

Note 1 US$ = Baht 25

Alternative Dissemination .. Bridging The Gap
Stephen Rwangyezi. Ndere Troupe, Cultural Performers and Promoters, Offices at National Theatre Building, Uganda.

The Educational methods that were introduced in Africa during the second half of the 19th century by the first missionaries and which formed the basis for schools, were completely different from those that tradition had developed since the existence of the African continent.

Whereas in traditional Africa, education was informal-learning through work. play or conversation, and where every body was a teacher-at any time and anywhere, (except for specialised education like medicine which was done through apprenticeship), the European education emphasised selection and isolation of learners, keeping them in partial prisons called schools, run by "artificial creatures" code-named teachers, who were slaves to books called syllabi and to a bell that signified change of periods and subjects irrespective of whether the previous ones had been understood or not. Only the financially capable parents managed to send their children to these privileged Centres-Schools.

The result of the collision of these two completely different educational systems was class creation. The "Modern" system produced a powerful minority group of "social misfits" that control political power from remote centres called towns and cities. These people, unfortunately disregard the vast "Unschooled" rural based majority as primitive, obstinate, fatalistic, retrogressive and peculiarly impervious to any form of civilization-a condemned group to be ignored until they die off.

Far from dying off, however, the rural majority, interact with nature. Using crude methods, they produce the food and the children that keep feeding the cities and the whole country. They, however, view the elites as an unrealistic and not down-to-earth lot.

The mutual suspicion that developed between the products of the two educational systems is, in our opinion largely responsible for the gross lack of complimentality in addressing Africa's problems such as malnutrition, high mortality rates, political confusion, wars etc. etc.

If, therefore, we are to talk about development that is environmentally friendly, then we must talk about effective COMMUNICATION and DIALOGUE with the rural population. But since the majority of them neither read nor write, given that radio and television, leave alone electric power, are a luxury of the rich city dwellers, considering that the rural peasant is depending on their muscle power therefore with serious time constraints (cannot afford the luxury of spending 'endless' hours in boring lectures and seminars) we must find in interesting, familiar and friendly method to disseminate vital information and stimulate open and sincere dialogue.

Farmer Participatory Selection Of Vetiver Grass And The Most Effective Way To Control Erosion In Cassava-Based Cropping Systems In Vietnam And Thailand.
Reinhardt Howeler, CIAT, Thailand

Research has identified various effective ways to reduce erosion in cassava-based cropping systems, including the use of vetiver grass. However, few of these practices are presently used by farmers. To enhance the adoption of soil conservation practices by cassava farmers, a Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) methodology was used in two pilot sites each in Thailand, Vietnam, China and Indonesia to test and select the most effective practices. Farmers in Thailand and Vietnam selected vetiver grass contour barriers as one of 4 - 5 treatments they wanted to test on their own fields. After harvesting all trials and discussing the results, farmers in all three villages in Vietnam selected the vetiver grass treatment as the most effective in increasing income and reducing erosion. Although the trials in Thailand have not yet been harvested, farmers already observed that the vetiver grass treatment was the most effective in reducing erosion. In both countries, participating farmers, after seeing the benefits of vetiver grass, requested additional planting material to plant in their fields.