EURO-MED VETNET

NEWSLETTER #3

A periodic Newsletter from the European and Mediterranean Vetiver Network (EMVN)

Number 3 April, 2000

Editorial

* This edition focuses primarily on two Conferences that I attended. The first was The International Conference on Vetiver held in Thailand and the second was the International Congress of the European Society for Soil Conservation held in Valencia, Spain. Readers can obtain more detailed information on the Vetiver Conference through our WebSite. However, some notes may be helpful.

* Since the last Newsletter I have visited some of the vetiver plantings in the region and undertaken a consultancy to the Açores.

* I would like to take this opportunity of advising potential users of the Vetiver System (VS) to explore the market before purchasing planting material. There are a number of sources available and you can find some that are known to us listed in TVN's WebSite. Some are considerably more expensive than others but quality of material, transportation costs and efficiency in handling and packaging are important considerations.

* Another issue that I need to bring to the attention of readers is the concept with which we operate in our Vetiver Network. This is that information is freely exchanged between us and there should be no restriction on this interchange or of plant interchange between growers. Our concern is simply to ensure that information is correct and reflects current state of the art in technology development. I am in regular contact with the best sources of updated information.

* Over the past two years I have been contacted by many people from EMVN countries and have provided information on the VS, giving names of plant suppliers where called for. It would be of considerable interest to me to learn what fruit has been borne by these efforts in practical application or research investigations. In turn I would like to be able to pass on to others in EMVN information as to where vetiver is being grown within the region.

* You will see my comments below under 'Vetiver Limits in EMVN'. Please inform me of your practical experiences with vetiver usage so that I can pass on this information to others through subsequent Newsletters. Suitably quantified negative experiences are just as valuable as positive experiences.

Vetiver Conference

The Second International Vetiver Conference was held at Cha-am, Phetchaburi, Thailand between 18th-22nd January. Some 350 people from 33 countries participated. Organization was quite excellent in every respect reflecting the very considerable personal commitment to the VS by His Majesty the King and his daughter, Her Royal Highness, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn who demonstrated the family enthusiasm for the VS by opening the Conference, attending most of the first morning's session and visiting poster and demonstrational exhibits. It is this sort of dedicated commitment at the top level that results in effective and positive action in field application of the technology.

The Conference provided an excellent opportunity of interacting with most of the key people in the global Network. I felt that EMVN's contribution was far too small. In part this is understandable because we are a relatively new Network and because field applications in our region are few and relatively new. I think it important that the EMVN contribution at the next Conference should be considerably strengthened. This will be held in China in 2004 when the theme will be 'Vetiver and Water'. This is appropriate at a time when there is increasing international focus on conservation and control of global water resources. I suggest that scientists and others interested in the VS within EMVN should be directing research/field application towards identifying and resolving problems in the application of the VS, particular in regard to clean water conservation under EMVN conditions. I particularly wish to draw the attention of readers to the section below 'Vetiver and Water'. This lists many opportunities for research and field application that, if pursued during the next few years could yield valuable information that could be presented at the next Conference.

Dick Grimshaw made an outstanding closing presentation which ably summarized what the Conference had all been about and what its conclusions were, especially in regard to the linkage between the VS and clean water supplies. I can do no better than present extracts of what he said for the benefit of those who do not wish to read the verbatim report that features in the WebSite.

Vetiver and the Environment.

Dick listed what the accomplishments of the VS have been and also listed the reasons why it has been successfully promoted.

Here are some extracts.

* "The VS is a 'biological' or 'soft' engineering method that is responsive to environmental mitigation needs over a broad range of ecological conditions for a range of applications that are normally treated with 'hard' engineering solutions or not at all.

* There is a need to highlight the importance of grasses, especially a unique grass like vetiver that has many characteristics peculiar to itself.

* The general population, particularly school children, need to be educated about vetiver grass and the VS.

* Environmental and other policy makers should be made aware of the value of the VS for environmental mitigation programs in tropical and semi-tropical countries. VS should, where appropriate, be a mandated system.

* The adequate supply of good quality plant material is critical to any vetiver program.

* Improved marketing of VS to potential clients should receive priority.

* More national networks need to be established.

* VS is not used by many development sectors, it is no longer the 'property' of the agricultural sector, therefore cross linkages need to be established between sectors.

* For even quicker VS adoption rates, particularly in the engineering sector, the private sector must become fully involved.

Vetiver and Water

The following is a near-verbatim version of Dick's summation of the issues surrounding water and the role that the VS can play in addressing water-related problems.

* The VS will continue to address many of the areas of need that have been identified over the past fifteen years. There is much to do, and there is much being done to extend the technology to new applications that reflect the need to restore our planet to a better ecological condition.

* However, in this first year of the new Millennium there is a world focus on water - its quality, its availability and its destructiveness. The Vetiver Network and those attending the Second International Vetiver Conference in Thailand supports this global focus.

* Vetiver grass and the VS could play a crucial role in improving the availability and quality of water in tropical and semi-tropical countries. Vetiver behaves as a biological sieve in preventing the movement of soil (and the attached pollutants), by conserving and 'cleaning' water and by strengthening soil profiles, through its root system. Thus it prevents water-induced slippage and collapse and subsequent damage to property and life.

* One way of bringing focus to the VS and its special relevance to water is to view the watershed-drainage system (rivers) from mountain to sea as the essential ecological unit on which improvements can be made - the river receives and the river gives. How do we optimize what goes in and out of the stem of the river? How can the VS play a part in making sure that what goes in is good? The following takes the main sections of the stem of a river and summarizes the potential VS applications for each section.

Note the following abbreviations: WQ = Water Quality impact; WA = Water Availability impact; DC = water-related Damage Control.

River System -- Upper Reaches - A Place for Vetiver

River System -- Middle Reaches -- A Place for Vetiver

River System -- Lower Reaches -- A Place for Vetiver

Coastal Areas -- A Place for Vetiver

Associated Research Needs

* Most of the foregoing has already been demonstrated and put into practice. A systematic approach as outlined above when applied by the relevant sector agencies could, in association with the private sector, have an immense impact on the availability and quality of water. How fortunate for the world to have a low-cost, simple technical solution to help provide a solution for some of the water-related environmental problems facing the world today.

Other Extracts

Here are some other snippets that I have extracted from papers presented at the Conference that I feel may be of particular interest to EMVN readers.

* Networking has proven to be successful because it focuses on a single, low-cost and effective technology that is effective, easy to understand and use. It requires lower labor resource inputs than traditional engineered systems. It is gender positive and has a wide range of ecological adaptation and applications both in the agriculture and construction sectors. The end user comes first and feedback information is quickly fed back to users. Incentive awards are made to encourage participation in the network and participants are generous in sharing their information which, in turn is delivered free to the user. The VS networking appears to be self-sustaining and other independent vetiver networks are encouraged at regional and national levels. Hard copy information backed by Internet WebSites and e-mail communication are powerful dissemination tools. Finally, TVN is administered with minimum procedures and on a basis of trust with its partners. (Grimshaw).

* Land disturbance by construction activities has resulted in soil erosion increases from two to 40,000 times the pre-construction rates with sediment being the principal transport mechanism for a range of pollutants entering water courses. (Truong).

* Landslides are often caused by lack of structural strength of the ground on steep slopes and the event is triggered by over-saturation during heavy rainfall periods. The problem can be exacerbated by the presence of tall trees which can be overtopped by strong wind. Under natural conditions such as forests, deep-rooted trees provide the structural reinforcement, but when deforestation is carried out for agriculture and forestry production or infrastructure construction this structural protection is lost. (Truong).

* As soluble N and particularly P are usually considered to be key elements for water eutrophication which normally leads to blue algae growth in inland waterways and lakes, the removal of these elements by vegetation is a most cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of control. (Truong).

* Vetiver can sequester large quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Nobody yet knows how much greenhouse gas vetiver can remove but a rough estimate can be gained from measurements made on a closely related grass, Andropogon guyanus. In 1995 CIAT reported that this species ...."may remove as much as 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere yearly." A. guyanus roots penetrate 1 meter into tropical soils and CIAT scientists found that the plant sequesters as much as 53 tons of CO2 as organic matter per hectare per year. Vetiver roots, by contract, are more extensive and penetrate tropical soils to depths of 5 m and beyond. Its rate of absorbing the gas is likely to be at least twice that of its botanical cousin. Approximate calculations suggest that a single vetiver plant may absorb 2 kg of CO2 per year. (Truong).

* If VGT is so simple , inexpensive and good for the health of the soil, why isn't it promoted more broadly on a national scale in the same way vaccinations are promoted to preserve an individual's health? The answer is not related to the attractiveness of the technology, but to the challenge of dissemination. (Juliard).

* Three critical ingredients listed by Criss Juliard for successful vetiver establishment (in Madagascar) were: get the right people involved and committed; assure a reliable and timely supply of plant material; and provide technical support to assure the technology is applied correctly.

* Transporting plant material is one of the costliest links in the VGT chain, which is why the on-site nursery is so important. (Juliard).

* Furrows or trenches should be dug 25 cm deep and about 20 wide in all areas where the vetiver is to be planted in hedgerows. (Juliard).

* On river embankments, where flood waters move at high speeds and there is a curve, dig furrows in a quadrant pattern, so that the vertical hedge can slow the flow and reduce the currents. (Juliard).

* In recent years the view that disasters are entirely caused by natural events has largely been discarded. (Shelton).

* In relation to Hurricane Mitch which did so much damage in the Caribbean and Central America in 1998 James Smyle noted "flooding was aggravated by a lack of adequate watershed management." Also, Disasters are unresolved problems of development" and "Disasters are indications that we have not yet learned to live where we are living".

* Misuse or overselling of VGT can not only result in discrediting the approach, it can put at risk human lives and high dollar investments. (Smyle).

* You absolutely cannot save or protect a bad design with VGT; and VGT has to be applied correctly or it will not work. (Smyle).

* In order for networks to be sustainable they should move away from a reliance on donor funding to a situation of user pays and of a commercial division of the network. (Hay).

* In relation to China, Liyu Xu said, "Non-agricultural practices caused 72.0 and 89.4% of the total erosion area and soil loss respectively".

* Although there are a lot of soil conservation measures, the most outstanding of these is the use of vegetative soil and moisture conservation measures that are cheap, replicable, sustainable and fully effective in stopping erosive degradation and increasing crop yields. (Liyu Xu).

* In relation to deforestation in Viet Nam, Nguyen Hong Son noted that "...where the forest remained, the flow was 803 cu. m of water, carrying away 1 ton of soil per hectare; where the forest was lost, the flow increased to 4,690 cu. m, 6 times as large, and carried away 124 tons of soil per hectare, 124 times as much." "Because of this, global warnings of the perils of deforestation are no longer warnings; they have become reality."

* Sediment loads are reduced up to 90% when comparing plots with vetiver grass hedgerows against those without cover and vetiver hedgerows. Organic matter loads are reduced up to 57% and total P up to 70%. Loads of highly soluble elements like calcium were not significantly reduced. (Rodriguez).

* Of the two species (alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides and vetiver) growing relatively better in wastewater, alligator weed on the whole was superior over vetiver in purifying low-concentrated leachate (LCL), especially in purifying total N and nitrate N; but the effects of vetiver in purifying seven 'pollutants' in high concentrate leachate (HCL) were all better than that of alligator weed, and the purification of P and COD in LCL by vetiver was also better than by alligator weed. Of all seven items measured in the study, ammoniac N was the best cleansed, and its purification rate was about 80% in HCL and nearly 90% in LCL. Vetiver showed quite a high purification rate for P, over 74%. (Xia et al.)

ESSC Congress

In conjunction with Paul Truong I presented a paper and exhibited posters at the Third International Congress of the European Society for Soil Conservation. This was held in Valencia, Spain between 28th March and 1st April. It was encouraging to receive the comment after the event that our paper presented one practical solution to the problem of soil and water conservation. The majority of papers were more scientifically oriented. I think it important that we participate in such events if for no other reason than to allow others involved with the issues of soil and water conservation to learn of the VS which is still such a new development that few have heard of it.

An excellent set of conclusions was prepared post-Congress and I can do not better than extract a number of key issues from this which directly impinge on our VS activities and on which I think we should give some thought.

* "...we need solutions now, we have to conserve our soil now!"

* "We have to care for the soil. We have to preserve the soil. For what? For a better soil quality? Or for maintaining the soil at a certain level? Or for better water quality? Or for better environmental quality taking into account the crops and the plants?

* "If there was no erosion there should not be any need for erosion control. If there was no contamination we do not need to clean the soil." "...we have to conserve and protect what is good, what is left in good quality (whatever that may be) and therefore we have to consider soil as part of the land, as part of the environment."

* "...people are more concerned with the quality of water and air because this affects directly the society and the environment. We have to keep in mind: no soil conservation without water conservation."

* "In the Northern Mediterranean the population decline is causing abandonment of land, which in many cases leads to enhanced erosion. On the other hand, in Southern Mediterranean areas it is the increase in population pressures that is the main contribution to land degradation."

* ...we are not demonstrating enough that we are able to conserve the soil and that we are able to preserve our natural resources. Just a few examples were given..." "We need examples, we need demonstrations. We need criteria in terms of soil quality for specific soil and water functions."

Proposals for Soil Sustainability were listed as follows:

* Soil conservation should be linked with water conservation.

* Soil quality should be linked with land quality and environmental quality.

* Research should be encouraged, supported and oriented to assess processes of land degradation on different scales: from the field to the small and large catchment to an environmental unit.

* Attention should be given to the heritage and landscape value of traditional soil and water conservation systems.

* Socio-economical and political aspects at different levels (field, watershed, community, region,...) should be integrated.

* Politicians, decision-makers and land use planners should be educated and informed about soil quality, soil functions and the importance of soil and water conservation.

Heineken Contribution

Readers will recall that I mentioned in the last Newsletter of November 1999 a presentation that Cornelis des Bouvrie and I made to Heineken Breweries in Amsterdam in June. I am pleased to be able to say that Cornelis' efforts have borne fruit since Heineken has made a first tranche offer of US$100,000 to the Chaipattana Foundation of Thailand to promote vetiver usage. Heineken has its green label image and is dependent upon sources of clean water for its products. So the Company is interested in environmentally beneficial technologies, especially those that involve the conservation of clean water. Hence, their support for The Vetiver Network through the well-established Chaipattana Foundation which has already demonstrated its ability for promoting the technology effectively in Thailand. I think there will be spin-off benefits for EMVN because we can benefit indirectly from vetiver activities in Thailand and because the overall image of TVN gains in international credibility through support from such a prestigious company as Heineken Breweries.

Narrow Stiff-grass Barriers

This is how vetiver or other similar vegetative barriers against erosion and water run-off are described in the United States. It encompasses the breadth of alternatives in bio-engineering and provides for the use of vegetative barriers that are more suitable in temperate climates where vetiver, for example, would be inappropriate. It is also interesting to note the significance that is being attached to the overall issues of erosion control and limitation of water run-off through narrow stiff-grass barriers.

Offset Planting

We tend to talk about planting vetiver hedges 'on the contour'. But, of course, the beauty of the system is that we do not have to be precise in this, as was the case in traditional embankments. Vetiver hedges can be 'straightened' out to avoid unnecessarily strict adherence to the contour. This is easier for the farmer in regard to hedge establishment and inter-hedge cultivation. Also, it may be necessary, where there is risk of excessive flash floods descending on a hedge for it to incorporate a small slope away from the contour so that there is some gentle run off to be directed to a water-way. Paul Truong has sketched this neatly showing staggered row planting on short, steep slopes and offset, staggered rows with a 1% gradient to direct drain-off water during high intensity storms. I would be happy to supply copies (but see above re donations!).

John Greenfield's Book

I was honoured to be appointed a member of the sub-committee that is helping John in the completion of his new book 'Vetiver Grass - The Soft Approach to Natural Resources Engineering'. John lives in New Zealand. He and Dick Grimshaw are the architects of the current VS, having rehabilitated and developed it in India in the '80's. The book is looking good and when published, hopefully before year-end, will provide an excellent definitive work on all aspects related to vetiver management, usage and the overall technology.

Data Base

Having initiated a very amateurish data base some two years ago I now find myself a member of a sub committee that will ensure the production of a professionally produced data base, hopefully before mid-2001. When complete this should provide an invaluable tool for researchers and all those interested in the technology. The research will be undertaken in Washington D.C.

Tolerance To Waterlogging

Another query that arose recently sought information on any definitive articles which document quantitatively vetiver's tolerance to waterlogging/flooding. There are, of course, a number of anectodal references to vetiver's ability to survive under water-logged conditions for several months, e.g. Bangladesh and South Africa. However, as far as I can determine there is no scientific work on this subject though Vito Sardo in Catania University has contributed usefully in his paper "Phytodepuration of Urban Wastewaters - An Appraisal of Constructed Wetlands Efficiency". It would seem this is an area where some useful scientific research could be conducted.

Bio-engineering

We use this term a great deal and are referring to vetiver's capability of providing vegetative solutions to engineering problems. However, others may link the term to genetic engineering. This is, of course, something quite different. I felt that Diti Hengchaovanich, who is an engineer, neatly clarified this within his presentation to the Vetiver Conference in Thailand. His words were: "Bioengineering, or strictly speaking soil bioengineering (in order not to be confused with similar terms being used in the medical or genetic sciences), is a relatively new sub-branch of civil engineering. It attempts to use live materials, mainly vegetation, on its own or in integration with civil works to address the problems of soil erosion and slope stabilization." My own conclusion is that we should be a little cautious when using the term and should, where possible, quantify the expression as Diti has done.

Evapotranspiration

It seems that we may not know too much about the evapotranspiration effects of vetiver. I was asked about this recently by David Barker, an engineer who has had some experience of the VS and may soon promote its use within some EMVN countries with which he is involved. David wondered whether vetiver might not be a strong solar pump because of its thin, low-density stomata leaves that may result in it not having a high transpiration rate potential. He wondered whether it was effective in removal of water from saturated soils. We do not have good scientific data to which we can refer in this matter. However, it is worth noting that whilst the stomata density may be low, there are a lot of leaves and rapid growth so it is likely that the plant does indeed suck up a lot of water. But this flies in the face of vetiver's ability to withstand drought conditions. So the bottom line seems to me that this is yet another area where we do not know enough and where good scientific research would be valuable.

Aromatherapy

Our local aromatherapist was delighted to tell me recently how much her profession values vetiver as a massage oil. In addition, recently, I was sent some extracts from 'The Complete Aromatherapy Book' by Suzanne Fischer-Rizzi where I noted that the character of vetiver is described as "Intense yin with rising yang". Other extracts that might amuse readers are:

"Vetiver has the scent of Mother Earth, mysteriously hidden in deep, dark recesses, drawing on the fullness of her life-giving energy."

"Vetiver nourishes people who have cold feet or have their heads in the clouds."

"It is a useful remedy for exhausted women whose diminished energy reserve makes them vulnerable under stress. The oil may be helpful for men who have become insensitive and restless, or who have lost connection with their inner being."

"Vetiver is a secret ingredient which, when mixed with geranium and ylang-ylang in lotions is used to enlarge breasts."

Botanical Terms

If others, like myself, have been confused by some of the overlapping botanical terms that we use in TVN I have some clarifications from Mark Dafforn. He knows about these things and I can pass on to others what he sent me.

News from the Region

I have some useful extension booklets in Portuguese, some sent to me from Brazil by Joe Boehnert, and some from Joan Miller who was Coordinator for the Latin America Region based in Costa Rica. If any reader wants copies please write to me.

Visit to the Açores

In mid-March I was invited by Dr. Jorge Pinheiro of the University in conjunction with the Forestry Department to visit the Açores and advise on vetiver's potential in this island chain. The Açores, situated at 38¼ N. has an Atlantic climate with all-year-round rainfall, plenty of sunshine, no frosts but considerable wind. The largely volcanic soils can become unstable when sodden, endangering life, so erosion control is important. The climate is ideal for dairy production which dominates the agricultural scene. The Forestry Department has demonstrated that vetiver grows well in their nursery on the island of São Miguel, where it was introduced in March 1998. Now it is intended to determine its application under field conditions.

Farmers apply generous quantities of inorganic fertilizer to their grassland and the heavy stocking produces large quantities of cattle manure. These result in pollution problems, mainly of nitrates and phosphates, in lower lying volcanic lakes that receive the run-off.

In China, vetiver has been shown to have considerable capability for extracting these pollutants through its roots and trials will now be established in the Açores to determine vetiver's capability to perform with similar effectiveness on the archipelago. For instance, past research has found that within 3-4 weeks after planting vetiver can remove 82% of total N and 99% of P from sewage polluted river water (ChunRong et al. 1997).

On the Açores consideration is being given to a three-tiered approach to the problem. Firstly, attempts will be made to encourage farmers to plant vetiver hedgerows as boundary fences on the down-slopes of their properties to entrap pollutants on their downward path, both above and below surface level. However, realistically, it is unlikely that there will be much farmer response because the farmers most likely see no problem that they have to address by expending time and money in planting vetiver hedgerows. Erosion on the extensive pasture-lands is negligible. One possible advantage that might encourage farmers to plant would be the windbreak aspect. A 1.5 - 2.0 m. high hedge provides valuable protection from cold winds, thus benefiting growth in young stock. This has been demonstrated with sheep in Australia but in regard to shade and reduced temperatures.

The pollutant issue can be more positively addressed along the riparian shores of the lakes or wetlands into which pastures drain. An experimental site will be selected close to the heavily polluted Lake Furnas. Vetiver hedgerows will be planted close to the water's edge and, across the slope, back from the lake. Measurements will be taken over time to determine the effectiveness of the vetiver hedgerows to absorb N and P in particular at different soil levels.

Finally, it is proposed to conduct an experiment directly in the lake adapting the technology that has been developed in China and Madagascar. Vetiver plants will be supported on bamboo rafts anchored in experimental tanks placed in the lake. The roots would be suspended in the water hydroponically. Vetiver was originally a swamp grass and responds well to such conditions, thriving on high quantities of N and P. Measurements will be taken of the performance of the vetiver plants to absorb pollutants through their roots and to purify the polluted lake waters.

It is also proposed that multiplication of vetiver planting stock will be expanded in the nursery and this will be used for stabilization of roadside cuttings and embankments, stabilization of volcanic pumice slopes that represent high risk for land-slip and control of leachate seepage on landfill sites.

Greece

I have long been hoping to see some vetiver developments in Greece and was encouraged by the response I received from Athanasios Gertsis during the ESSC Congress (see above). He works at the American Farm School near Thessaloniki with David Willis who has long been interested in the VS. They are keen to determine the effectiveness of vetiver in addressing erosion and water run-off problems in their region. I have little doubt that vetiver would perform well in Southern Greece and it will be interesting to see some established in the more marginal Thessaloniki area. There are some grounds for optimism in this because of Kovaci Vangjo's pioneering work in neighbouring, and more northerly, Albania.

The European and Mediterranean Vetiver Network (EMVN)

At this year's Annual General Meeting we decided that membership subscriptions involving administrative costs and time were not justified by the number of members subscribing. As an alternative I have been asked to invite those with whom I communicate and especially those to whom I send hard-copy material involving photocopying and postage costs to make a donation to our funds. I am delighted to say that the initial response has been good and I am most grateful for this support. Any other donations would be gratefully received and will be officially acknowledged.

Vetiver Limits in EMVN

Periodically, I receive requests for information about vetiver usage in parts of Europe where I feel we can be confident that it will not survive effectively. I would like to emphasise that we must proceed cautiously in promoting VGT in EMVN. We know the parameters, particularly in relation to soils and climate, under which vetiver will flourish from well proven experience in tropical and sub tropical countries. We can be confident that, providing vetiver is planted within these parameters in EMVN countries, there is a strong likelihood that it will prosper. But we don't yet know enough about these limits. Vetiver has survived for 5 years in the harsh conditions of Lorca, in Murcia Region of Spain, 200-300mm rainfall per annum. It has done well on Antonio Vasco de Mello's property at 39¼ North in Portugal where it was imported 3 years ago. It has survived satisfactorily in the milder climatic areas of Albania where it was introduced more than 2 years ago. And it has performed well in various localities of Southern Portugal and in the Atlantic islands of the Açores (38¼N) where it was imported in 1998. These are all encouraging signals. But we should make haste slowly in expanding the use of the VS within EMVN. Essentially, I recommend potential users first to determine that their particular soil and climatic circumstances fall within the known parameters where it has been shown that vetiver will thrive. Then, it is critically important to understand the technology and to apply the tool (vetiver grass) correctly to the circumstances for which it is being grown. Above all I must emphasize that vetiver is not such a 'miracle grass' that it will prosper without appropriate tender loving care in its first two years of growth, in particular. Good plants, well planted with some organic and/or inorganic fertilizer and good watering are all critical ingredients to successful establishment. Once established, vetiver is able to look after itself providing that the essential climatic limitations are not exceeded.

Because, in EMVN, we are exploring these outer limits for effective vetiver usage it is important that we exchange information on the results of plantings under different pedological and climatic conditions.

HomePage & EMVN Coordinator

Information with EMVN section, Newsletters, etc. is on the WebSite: https://www.vetiver.org. Michael Pease: [email protected]