DNA fingerprints (RAPDs) of the pantropical grass vetiver, Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Gramineae), reveal a single clone, 'Sunshine', is widely utilized for erosion control.

Robert P. Adams 1 and Mark R. Dafforn 2
1Plant Biotechnology Center, Baylor University, P.O. Box 669, Gruver, TX 79040, USA,
E.mail: rpadams@juno.com 2National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418, USA, E.mail: Vetivernet@aol.com

Abstract: Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to examine accessions (n=121) of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) and related taxa from its region of origin and around the world. It appears only one V. zizanioides genotype, 'Sunshine', accounts for almost all germplasm utilized outside South Asia. Curiously, no 'Sunshine' types were detected from within this region of vetiver's early distribution. Additional RAPD analyses revealed that at least seven other non-fertile accessions are distinct genotypes. This germplasm diversity holds promise for reducing the vulnerable genetic uniformity in what is now essentially a pantropical monoculture of an economically and environmentally important plant resource. Evaluation trials of these accessions are planned. DNA from air-dried leaves was often found to be degraded beyond use (n=22). Material submitted for DNA analysis should be small (actively growing) leaves, harvested fresh and immediately placed into activated silica gel or other suitable drying agent.

Introduction
Elite germlines of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash have long been cultivated for their fragrant roots, which contain the essential Oil of Vetiver. This oil is clearly distinguished chemically and in commerce from Khus oil, which comes from natural (fertile) populations of V. zizanioides in the Ganges Plain of north India (CSIR, 1976) The Oil of Vetiver (commercial, essential oil type) has long been produced pantropically through via Vetiver cuttings. Within the past decade, vetiver occurrence has increased enormously through widespread plantings (over 100 countries) to form hedges for stabilizing soil and controlling waterflow.
One of the desirable features of most hedgerow (essential oil) vetiver is that it is non fertile (produces no seed or seeds do not produce viable seedlings), and so it must be propagated from cuttings (clumps of rootstock). Because it does not reproduce by seed, for centuries it has been a very well-behaved grass throughout the tropics and subtropics. It has not escaped cultivation or become a weed. However, the mere fact that it is always distributed by cuttings could lead to the widespread cultivation of a single clone. This could be extremely dangerous. An insect or disease adapted to a particular genotype could spread and decimate millions of erosion control terraces of vetiver. In order to investigate this concern, we assembled leaf materials from around the world and compared these accessions to known wild and related materials using RAPDs (DNA fingerprints).
Genetic variability was initially investigated by Kresovich et al. (1994), who reported on vetiver variation in the United States. They found RAPD patterns were very stable within clones, that the non fertile 'Huffman' and 'Boucard' cultivars were identical (>.99+), and that these were clearly distinct from the USDA PI 196257 seed introductions from north India (Simla, Punjab). Interestingly, they found that three samples of this USDA accession (#s 1,2,3), though similar, were genetically distinct from one-another. They concluded that RAPDs would be useful for identifying truly distinct sources of genetic diversity. Srifah et al. (in press) confirmed this in Thailand (where vetiver is ancient if not indigenous) by showing that RAPDs could easily distinguish among landrace "ecotypes".

Materials and methods
The reader is referred to Adams et al. (in press) for DNA extraction and analyses. However, it should be noted that a number of the accessions that were merely air dried or shipped fresh did not yield any DNA or the DNA was so degraded that it could not be analyzed. In the future, material submitted for DNA analysis should be small (actively growing) leaves, picked fresh and immediately placed into activated silica gel or other suitable drying agent.

Results and Discussion
An initial screening of accessions (n=53) using 222 banding patterns found almost no variation among cultivated materials. The pattern obtained by primer 268 is typical of that obtained using primers 184, 239, 249, 327, and 346. Essentially no variation was detected in an initial twenty-seven accessions for outside south Asia, except for a quite-similar accession from Malawi.
A second series of accessions (n=68) were analyzed running only one highly discriminating primer (268). This analysis, while revealing additional variation in non fertile types, reinforced patterns that form several distinct genetic clusters. These groupings are validated by correspondence to botanical taxa and field observations (reports of fertility), see Table 1.
Of 60 total samples submitted from 29 countries outside south Asia, 53 (88%) were a single clone of Vetiveria zizanioides. At least two-thirds of these samples were first accessioned from traditional, in-country sources, i.e, oil producers, herbalists, botanical gardens, and other planted sites, and therefore may be considered representative of ex situ vetiver populations. Because vetiver is vegetatively propagated, it thus appears that one single essential-oil clone (which we are denoting as 'Sunshine' because of accession priority) is densely distributed throughout the tropics. Its introduction[s] was done certainly before WWII and most likely before this century. For instance, vetiver has been in the United States since at least the early 19th century, although the earliest authenticated germline identifications are currently 'Vallonia', South Africa, via Mauritius, c. 1900, M. Robert; 'Monto', Australia, 1930s, P. Truong; 'Sunshine', USA, 1960s, E. LeBlanc; and MY044693 & MY081268, Venezuela, 1982, O. Rodriguez; (information from Vetiver Network members). Such a consistent identity in a spatially and temporally scattered distribution implies that virtually all of the Vetiveria zizanioides outside South Asia could be the single 'Sunshine' genotype, which today certainly dominates soil stabilization and waterflow control usage.

Conclusions
Based on DNA fingerprinting data, it appears that almost all the vetiver used for erosion control outside South Asia has been derived from a single genotype, which we call 'Sunshine'. Nevertheless, discontinuities of geographic and genetic patterns in our analysis imply much vetiver diversity awaits discovery. There is a critical need to screen other, reportedly non fertile vetivers to uncover additional germlines to diversify current and future plantings of this very important "hedge against erosion" (NRC, 1993). Especially needed are samples from areas on the periphery of south Asia, where vetiver has been cultivated for centuries. Common garden studies are planned using the divergent vetiver accessions in Table 2. Further promising germplasm needs to be accessioned and observed. The challenge is to assure the genetic diversity of cultivated vetiver, which is proving of immense importance to agricultural stabilization and civil engineering.


Table 1. Preliminary classification of vetiver accessions by DNA fingerprinting.

A = pattern based on 6 primers: 184, 239, 249, 268, 327, and 346. B = pattern based only on primer 268.
Fertile codes: N = no, Y = yes, F = fully, L = low, + = confirmed, - = assumed, ? = unknown.
* = botanically verified at the species level.

Accession # Lab # Species Source (other locations) Fertile?


Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash Sunshine clone (S) (= Haiti, Monto, Boucard, Huffman, Vallonia)
S
A VET-RPA-7655 7655 V. zizanioides, Haiti, Massif de la Selle, 1600 amsl N+
S
A VET-RPA-7659 7659 V. zizanioides, Haiti, Marigot, 8 amsl N+
S
A VET-RPA-7660 7660 V. zizanioides, Haiti, Jacmel, 3 amsl N+
S
A VET-RPA-7661 7661 V. zizanioides, Haiti, Jacmel, 3 amsl N+
S
A VET-RPA-7663 7663 V. zizanioides, Haiti, Massif de la Selle, 820 amsl N+
S
A * VET-PT-1A 7711 V. zizanioides cv. 'Monto', Australia, Queensland N+
S
A * VET-PT-1B 7712 V. zizanioides cv. 'Fiji', Australia, Queensland (Fiji) N+
S
A * VET-PT-1D 7714 V. zizanioides, Australia, Queensland
(Western Australia) N+
S
A * VET-PT-1E 7715 V. zizanioides, New Guinea N+
S
A VET-RGG-PA-A 7719 V. zizanioides, Panama, site A N+
S
A VET-RGG-CR-A 7721 V. zizanioides, Costa Rica, San Jose N+
S
A * VET-MR-VAL1 7722 V. zizanioides cv. 'Vallonia', South Africa, Natal N+
S
A VET-OSR-1.0 7729 V. zizanioides, Venezuela, Maracay (flowers some) N+
S
A VET-DEKN-1001 7730 V. zizanioides, Aneityum Island, Pacific N+
S
A VET-DEKN-1003 7731 V. zizanioides, Efate Island, Pacific N+
S
A VET-DEKN-1002 7732 V. zizanioides, Atiu Island, Pacific N+
S
A VET-DEKN-1004 7733 V. zizanioides, Mangaia Island, Pacific N+
S
A VET-GVB-001 7742 V. zizanioides cv. 'Boucard', USA,
Texas, (Haiti or Guatemala) N+
S
A VET-MJ-F1 7747 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina N+
S
A VET-MJ-F2 7748 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina N+
S
A * VET-MRL-0001 7749 V. zizanioides cv. 'Sunshine', USA, Louisiana N+
S
A VET-MRD-0001 7750 V. zizanioides cv. 'Sunshine', USA, Louisiana N+
S
A VET-MRD-0002 7751 V. zizanioides cv. 'Huffman', USA, Florida (Louisiana) N+
S
A VET-RDH-0001 7767 V. zizanioides, Hong Kong (Thailand?) N-
S
A VET-RDH-0002 7768 V. zizanioides, Hong Kong (South China) N-
S
B VET-JG-23 7773 V. zizanioides, New Zealand, Northland N
S
B VET-EB-5997 7776 V. zizanioides, Netherlands Antilles, Bonaire (USA) N
S
B VET-JGN-0001 7777 V. zizanioides, USA, California N+
S
B VET-EAB-5262 7950 V. zizanioides, Philippines, Leyte N
S
B VET-CXH-0001 7952 V. zizanioides, China, Guiyang N+
S
B VET-JA-1-1 7954 V. zizanioides, Kenya, Nairobi, ICRAF N
S
B VET-JA-1-3 7956 V. zizanioides, Peru, Iquitos, ICRAF N
S
B VET-JA-1-4 7957 V. zizanioides, Peru, Iquitos, ICRAF N
S
B VET-JA-2-3 7960 V. zizanioides, Peru, Iquitos, ICRAF N
S
B VET-OSR-1-B 7961 V. zizanioides, Venezuela, Maracay (Carabobo) N+
S
B * VET-OSR-2 7962 V. zizanioides, Venezuela, Maracay (Bajo Seco) N+
S
B VET-HGR-01 7965 V. zizanioides, Colombia, Bogota N+
S
B VET-TS-F1 7967 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Filakit N+
S
B VET-TS-F2 7968 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Filakit N+
S
B VET-TS-F3 7969 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Filakit N+
S
B VET-TS-D1 7970 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Digitosh N+
S
B VET-TS-D2 7971 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Digitosh N+
S
B VET-TS-M1 7973 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Minikaba N+
S
B VET-TS-M2 7974 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Minikaba N+
S
B VET-TS-M3 7975 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Minikaba N+
S
B VET-HP-01 7986 V. zizanioides, Honduras, Zamorano N
S
B VET-HP-03 7988 V. zizanioides, USA, Florida (Louisiana) N
S
B VET-JMJS-VC1 8000 V. zizanioides, Mexico, Oaxaca (Vera Cruz) N
S
B VET-CED-0001 8002 V. zizanioides, Bolivia, Sucre (MASDAR germplasm?)N
S
B VET-DD-A1 8005 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Dilla, Gedio N
S
B VET-DD-B1 8006 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Dilla, Gedio N
S
B VET-DD-C1 8007 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Dilla, Gedio N
S
B VET-MB-01 8029 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Huffman', USA, Florida (Louisiana) N+
Sunshine affinities: (S- = Sunshine pattern with one missing band, S+ = Sunshine pattern with one additional band).
S+
B VET-IPA-MUIR-001 7989 V. zizanioides, Mozambique, Maputo ?
S+
B VET-LW-0001 8048 V. zizanioides cv. 'Capitol', USA, Louisiana N
S-
B * VET-TGAVC-002 8051 V. zizanioides cv. 'AVC', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+

Sri Lanka (Chiapas) clone (SL):
SL
B * VET-RN-001 7951 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Colombo N-
SL
B VET-IMZ-AGA 7765 V. zizanioides, Malawi, Lilongwe N-
SL
B VET-SBR-VNN-96/2 7993 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N-
SL
B VET-SBR-VNN-96/3 7994 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N-
SL
B VET-SBR-VNN-96/4 7995 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N-
SL
B VET-SBR-AN-96/2 7997 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N-
SL
B VET-SBR-AN-96/4 7999 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N-
SL
B VET-JMJS-CH1 8001 V. zizanioides, Mexico, Oaxaca (Chiapas) N-

'Farmers Fodder' or 'Karnataka' (KM)
KM
B * VET-TGKN-003 8052 V. zizanioides cv. 'Karnataka', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India) N+

'Breeder' complex (G):
G
B * VET-UCL-027 7981 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP L?
G
B * VET-HP-02 7987 V. zizanioides, India, Uttar Pradesh,
(USDA PI 554617, 'Carter') YL


'Breeder' affinities: G+, G++ = with one(+) or two (++) extra band(s); G- = with a missing band.
G+
B VET-JGN-0002 7778 V. zizanioides, USA, California (Philippines?) YL?
G++
B * VET-UCL-024 7980 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?
G+
B * VET-UCL-040 7982 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?
G-
B * VET-UCL-042 7983 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?
G+
B * VET-UCL-045 7984 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?
G+-
B * VET-UCL-M1 7985 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?

Khus type of Northern India (Kh):

(similar to Indian type I, cf. 7761)
Kh
B * VET-SCRC-001 8035 V. zizanioides, USA, USDA (India) YF+

'Ganges' complex (North India), loose group with considerable banding differences.
I
B * VET-BANG-B001 7723 V. zizanioides, Bangladesh YF+
I
B * VET-BANG-B002 7724 V. zizanioides, Bangladesh YF+
I
B * VET-BANG-B003 7725 V. zizanioides, Bangladesh YF+
I
B * VET-BANG-B004 7726 V. zizanioides, Bangladesh YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U1 7735 V. zizanioides, India, Punjab,
Simla (USDA PI 196257) YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U2 7736 V. zizanioides, India, A-3225 (USDA PI 213903) YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U3 7737 V. zizanioides, India (USDA PI 271633) YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U4 7738 V. zizanioides, India, A-7026 (unverified)
(USDA PI 302300) YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U5 7739 V. zizanioides, India, NBPGR Hybrid 7
(USDA PI 538753) YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U6 7740 V. zizanioides, India, BE-2668, NBPGR Hybrid 8
(USDA PI 538754) YF+
I
B * VET-USDA-U7 7741 V. zizanioides, India, BE-2668, NBPGR Hybrid 26
(USDA PI 538756) YF+
I
B VET-K-Dtp-1 7752 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-K-Pub-2 7753 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-K-Dnk-3 7754 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-K-Brk-8 7759 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-U-Blp-9 7760 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-U-Nlg-10 7761 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-U-Gsg-11 7762 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-U-Bdm-12 7763 V. zizanioides, India, Orissa YF+
I
B VET-CWDS-01 7764 V. zizanioides, Nepal, Kathmandu
(lowlands) (low flowering) ?
I
B * VET-UCL-005 7976 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?
I
B * VET-UCL-007 7978 V. zizanioides, India, Lucknow, CIMAP ?
I
B * VET-BANG-B006-B 8037 V. zizanioides, Bangladesh YF+
Ganges affinities: I- = Ganges type with one missing band:
I-
B * VET-BANG-B005-B 8036 V. zizanioides, Bangladesh YF+
I-
B * VET-TGSB-004 8053 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Sabah', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+
I-
B * VET-TGSBB-005 8054 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Sabik Bern', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+

Grafton type (Gr):
Gr
A * VET-PT-1C 7713 V. zizanioides cv. 'Grafton', Australia, Queensland YL+
Gr
B VET-SBR-AN-96/1 7996 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy ?

Other V. zizanioides banding patterns (O):(various banding, each of which is different)


O
B VET-SJC-2 7775 V. zizanioides, Malawi, Zomba N+
O
B * VET-TGML-001 8050 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Malaysia', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+
O
B * VET-TGPB-006 8055 V. zizanioides, cv 'Parit Bunt', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+
O
B VET-JM-PV1 8076 V. zizanioides? Costa Rica, Puerto Viejo N?

Other Vetiveria species:


V. elongata (R. Br.) Stapf (Eg): (very similar to one another)
Eg
A * VET-PT-2A 7716 V. elongata, (narrow leaf), Australia, Northern Territory YF-
Eg
A * VET-PT-2B 7717 V. elongata, (broad leaf), Australia, Northern Territory YF-

V. filipes (Benth.) C.E.Hubb. (Fp) (quite distinct, 7772 may be a different species or genus)
Fp
B * VET-PT-2C 7718 V. filipes, Australia YF-
Fp
B * VET-FA-257810 7772 V. filipes, Australia, USDA PI 257810 YF+

V. nigritana (Benth.) Stapf (Ng)
: (very similar to one another)
Ng
A VET-ISV-AGA 7766 V. nigritana, Malawi, Lilongwe (few seed) YL?!
Ng
B VET-SJC-1 7774 V. nigritana, Malawi, Zomba YF+

Possible other Vetiveria / Chrysopogon species

P
A VET-RGG-PA-B 7720 Vetiveria sp.?, Panama, Western, site B (Costa Rica) ?
Vb
B VET-BANG-B005 7727 Vetiveria sp.?, Bangladesh YF+?
Vb
B VET-BANG-B006 7728 Vetiveria sp.?, Bangladesh YF+?

Other Genera:
Chrysopogon Trin.
Cf
A * VET-CFP-219579 7769 C. fulvus (Spreng.)Chiov., Pakistan (USDA PI 219579) YF
Cg
A * VET-CGP-383762 7771 C. gryllus (L.) Trin., Turkey (USDA PI 383762) YF
Ca
B * VET-BANG-B007 8038 C. aciculatus (Retz.) Trin., Bangladesh YF+
Cn
B * VET-JVTH-ZN001 8040 Chrysopogon nemoralis (Balansa) Holttum (recv'd as
Zizania nemoralis (Balansa) Camas), Thailand Y?F?

Sorghum Moench.
Sh
A * VET-AW-01 8030 S. halepense (L.) Pers., USA, Texas YF+
Sb
A * VET-RPA-8030 8030 S. bicolor (L.) Moench., USA, Texas YF+



Not tested: (NT = not tested; D = degraded DNA, see text)
NT VET-MJ-B1 7701 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina, fungus on seeds
NT VET-MJ-B2 7702 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina, fungus on seeds
NT VET-MJ-B3 7703 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina, fungus on seeds
NT VET-MJ-B4 7704 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina, fungus on seeds
NT VET-MJ-B5 7705 V. zizanioides, USA, North Carolina, fungus on seeds
NT* VET-USDA-F1 7734 V. filipes, Australia, USDA (PI 257810)
(duplicate acc. under 7772) YF+
NT VET-K-Bdln-4 7755 Vetiveria sp., India, Orissa YF+
NT VET-K-Bdln-5 7756 Vetiveria sp., India, Orissa YF+
NT VET-K-Bdln-6 7757 Vetiveria sp., India, Orissa YF+
NT VET-K-Bdln-7 7758 Vetiveria sp., India, Orissa YF+
NT VET-JSC-0001 7953 V. zizanioides?, Cambodia (Australia) ?
NT VET-JBH-1267 8039 C. schmidianus, Laos ?

DNA too degraded to use:
D* VET-USDA-B6 7706 V. zizanioides, India, Punjab, Simla (USDA PI 196257) YF
D* VET-USDA-B7 7707 V. zizanioides, India, Punjab, Simla (USDA PI 196257) YF
D* VET-USDA-B8 7708 V. zizanioides, India, Punjab, Simla (USDA PI 196257) YF
D* VET-USDA-B9 7709 V. zizanioides, India, Punjab, Simla (USDA PI 196257) YF
D* VET-USDA-B10 7710 V. zizanioides, India, Punjab, Simla (USDA PI 196257) YF
D* VET-CFI-554618 7770 C. fulvus (Sprengel) Chiov., India (USDA PI 554618) YF
D VET-EAB-5261 7949 V. zizanioides, Philippines, Leyte ?
D VET-JA-1-2 7955 V. zizanioides, Kenya, Nairobi, ICRAF ?
D VET-JA-2-1 7958 V. zizanioides, Kenya, Nairobi, ICRAF ?
D VET-JA-2-2 7959 V. zizanioides, Kenya, Nairobi, ICRAF ?
D VET-NSC-01 7963 V. zizanioides, Cameroon, Mbingo Bamenda (Nigeria) ?
D VET-NSC-02 7964 V. zizanioides, Cameroon, Maroua ?
D* VET-HGR-02 7966 V. zizanioides, Colombia, Cundinamarca (flowering) ?
D VET-TS-D3 7972 V. zizanioides, Ethiopia, Digitosh N+
D* VET-UCL-006 7977 V. zizanioides, India, CIMAP ?
D* VET-UCL-008 7979 V. zizanioides, India, CIMAP ?
D VET-SBR-VA-96/1 7990 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N?
D VET-SBR-VH-96/1 7991 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N?
D VET-SBR-VNN-96/1 7992 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy N?
D VET-SBR-AN-96/3 7998 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy ?
D VET-BBG-001 8003 V. zizanioides, Ghana, Central N+
D VET-BBG-02 8004 V. fulvibarbus, Ghana, Central N+




Table 2. Germplasm of high priority for maintenance and evaluation.


Type Accession # Lab # Species Source Fertile?


S
A VET-PT-1A 7711 V. zizanioides cv. 'Monto', Australia, Queensland N+
S
A VET-MR-VAL1 7722 V. zizanioides cv. 'Vallonia', South Africa N
S
A VET-GVB-001 7742 V. zizanioides cv. 'Boucard', USA N+
S
B VET-MRL-001 7749 V. zizanioides cv. 'Sunshine', USA. Louisiana N
S
B VET-MB-01 8029 V. zizanioides cv. 'Huffman', USA, Florida N+
S
B VET-OSR-1-B 7961 V. zizanioides, Venezuela, Maracay (Carabobo) N+
S+
B VET-IPA-MUIR-001 7989 V. zizanioides, Mozambique, Maputo ?
S+
B VET-LW-0001 8048 V. zizanioides cv. 'Capitol', USA, Louisiana N
S-
B VET-TGAVC-002 8051 V. zizanioides cv. 'AVC', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+
SL
B VET-IMZ-AGA 7765 V. zizanioides, Malawi, Lilongwe ?!
SL
B VET-RN-001 7951 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Colombo N+?
SL
B VET-JMJS-CH1 8001 V. zizanioides, Mexico, Oaxaca (Chiapas) N+?
CR
B VET-JM-PV1 8076 V. zizanioides? Costa Rica, Puerto Viejo N?
Gr
A VET-PT-1C 7713 V. zizanioides cv. 'Grafton', Australia, Queensland YL+
Gr
B VET-SBR-AN-96/1 7996 V. zizanioides, Sri Lanka, Kandy ?
G+
B VET-JGN-0002 7778 V. zizanioides, USA, California (Philippines?) YL?
KM
B VET-TGKN-003 8052 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Karnataka', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India) N+
G
B VET-HP-02 7987 V. zizanioides, India, Uttar Pradesh,
(USDA PI 554617, 'Carter') YL+
P
A VET-RGG-PA-B 7720 Vetiveria sp.?, Panama, Western, site B (Costa Rica) ?
O
B VET-SJC-2 7775 V. zizanioides, Malawi, Zomba (few seed heads) ?
O
B VET-TGML-001 8050 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Sabik Bern', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+
I-
B * VET-TGSB-004 8053 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Sabah', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) ?
I-
B * VET-TGSBB-005 8054 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Sabik Bern', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) ?
O
B VET-TGPB-006 8055 V. zizanioides, cv. 'Sabik Bern', Spain, Murcia
(Malaysia, India?) N+


Acknowledgments. This research supported in part by funds from Baylor University, project RDJJ-032-4524. Thanks to Ming Zhong and Yerlan Turuspekov for assistance in running the RAPDs. We also want to thank the numerous collaborators in the Vetiver Network who contributed samples of vetiver tissue.

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