Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Chrysopogon zizanioides


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: -8


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Robert. 'Sunshine' Common name: vetiver grass, khus khus grass, cuscus grass. Synonyms: Anatherum zizanioides (L.), Andropogon muricatus Retz., Andropogon odoratus, Andropogon squarrosus, Andropogon zizanioides (L.), Phalaris zizanioides L. (basionym), Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Family - Poaceae.

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated? (If answer is 'no' then go to question 2.01)

y

-3

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

n

-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y

1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y

1

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y

1

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range? y=-2

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

-2

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n

0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

y

2

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

n

0

4.03

Parasitic

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

n

-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

n

0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

n

0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y

1

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y

1

4.1

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y

1

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

n

0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

n

0

5.01

Aquatic

n

0

5.02

Grass

y

1

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y

1

6.02

Produces viable seed.

n

-1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

n

-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

n

-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

n

-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

0

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

n

-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

n

-1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

n

-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

n

-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

n

-1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

n

-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y

-1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y

1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

Total score:

-8

Supporting data:

Notes

Reference

1.01

(1)'Sunshine' vetiver is a traditional, non-fertile variety with a 200 year history in Louisiana that is propagated vegetativelybecause it does not produce viable seeds. It was officially released from observation by the Plant Material Center inGolden Meadow, Louisiana in 1995. Refer to http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/lapmc/releases.html The SouthEastern Exotic Pest Plant Council, declared in May 2001 that ‘Sunshine’ vetiver is acceptable, i.e., non-invasive, for usein the southeastern region of the US. Refer to: www.se-eppc.org/fslist.cfm.See also http://user.aol.com/vetivernet/vip/dnadiv.htm or contact Mark Dafforn at mdafforn@nas.edu for furtherinformation." (2)"Vetiver's long history of cultivation and widespread use had led to many different terms to describe the plant. In the agronomic literature (most of which is Indian), the Ganges type is called "North India" vetiver; the nonfertile type is termed "South India" or "nonflowering". The geographical names are misleading, for both complexes extend beyond India. The horticultural term "nonflowering"-- referring to the relative lack of flowering (generally less than 5%) in the latter--is also a misnomer, for all vetivers flower at least occasionally.
The oils of these two types differ chemically, and they are distinguished in commerce as "Khus Oil" (from the Ganges type) and "Oil of Vetiver" (from the essential-oil type). Until genetic and geographical characteristics separating these two genetic complexes are better understood, the terminology to distinguish the two types includes the following:
• North India: "wild", "seedy", "fertile", "Ganges"
• "South India": "cultivated", "nonseedy", "nonfertile"*, "essential-oil".
_______________
* Occasional caryopses (seeds) are formed in nonfertile vetivers but these are technically "nongerminative": in intensive testing none have produced viable seedlings. It seems likely the nonfertile vetivers are domesticates; as with potatoes and other root crops, selecting for improved root quantities and oil content allowed fertility to fall by the wayside (Dafforn, in press).
(3)"… 'Sunshine is divergent from the main north Indian group, and 'Grafton' is even more divergent. It is interesting to note that, apparently only 'Sunshine' is nonseeding, although 'Grafton' has low seed fertility …."
[The 'Sunshine' variety is different from the wild ones in not producing seeds].

(1)http://www.vetiver.org/TVN_disaster%20mitigation%20brochure.pdf (2)http://user.aol.com/vetivernet/vip/dnadiv.htm (3)Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.

DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm

Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

1.02

No evidence of naturalization.

1.03

"The north Indian variety of Vetiveria zizanioides and the African Vetiveria nigritana are fertile They have distinct characteristics. They have been used for soil conservation purposes, but they are not as robust. Even these varieties have not shown strong invasive characteristics, they normally do not thrive outside of wetland conditions. Livestock owners see them as important forage species in flood plain zones." ['Sunshine is of the south and not the north Indian type.].

http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf

2.01

(1)"Native: ASIA-TROPICAL - Indian Subcontinent: India - Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Pakistan - Punjab; Sri Lanka Indo-China: Indochina; Myanmar; Thailand." (2)"It is found throughout the plains and lower hills of India, particularly on the riverbanks and in rich marshy soil."

(1)http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl (2)http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_vetiveria.htm

2.02

"Because vetiver was used as an essential oil plant (not for erosion control), clonal materials were distributed in many entrepreneurial schemes throughout the tropics in many countries. And because vetiver is distributed (even today) by root cuttings, it appears that a single clone (which we are denoting as 'Sunshine' based on accession priority) has been planted around the world and essentially all of the vetiver used today for erosion control seems to be from the single Sunshine clone."

Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.

DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm

Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

2.03

(1)"Altitude range - 300-1 250 m." (2)USDA zones 7to 10 (3)"It is reliably hardy to USDA zone 8b. " (4)"Vetiver grass is a “climax plant,” which survives conditions under which other plants cannot live. It will tolerate prolongeddrought, fire, flood, submergence, and extreme temperatures from -15C to 55C (in Australia) and higher (in India andAfrica). In some cases it may be the only plant to survive. Its ability to regrow quickly after being affected by drought andespecially by fire, as well as by frost, salt, and other adverse soil conditions, and is unequalled by other plants" (5)"Vetiver had once been cultivated in southern Louisiana and Texas, but little isknown of its range of adaptation in the United States. Although vetiver is a tropical plant,literature indicates that in other areas of the world it has withstood a wide range ofextremes, thriving in the parched, arid state of Rajasthan, India where temperatures canreach 130 F, and surviving in Fujian, China where winter temperatures can drop to lowsof 16 F. (National Research Council, 1993). High expectations for its adaptation atCoffeeville proved to be premature. Unseasonably warm temperatures in early December,1989 followed by an extended period of low Arctic temperatures tested the winterhardiness of many local plant species. Being a native of tropical and subtropical regions,vetiver does not appear adapted to temperatures below 7 F. The Sunshine accession had100% loss due to winterkill." [Even though the 'Sunshine' cultivar died at temperatures below 7 F, the study still indicates a broad range of temperatures under which it can survive].

(1)http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/data/PF000340.HTM (2)http://ecolage.safeshopper.com/53/136.htm?721 (3)http://www.io.com/~wilsone/january2002.htm (4)http://www.vetiver.org/TVN_disaster%20mitigation%20brochure.pdf (5)http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/mspmctn9404.pdf

2.04

"Native: ASIA-TROPICAL - Indian Subcontinent: India - Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Pakistan - Punjab; Sri Lanka Indo-China: Indochina; Myanmar; Thailand."

http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

2.05

(1) "The cultivars of vetiver used in Australia, South Africa, Portugal, Italy, China, Centraland South America, Vietnam, Indonesia, Madagascar, West Indies and East and WestAfrica, amongst others, under the Vetiver Systems program are nearly always of the“Sunshine” derived genotype. This means that they all exhibit non-invasive characteristics as well as the other characteristics of vetiver grass for conservation andslope stabilization. It also means that except for some minor use adjustment to specificareas and needs this genotype can be used reliably without repetitive research." (2)"Because vetiver was used as an essential oil plant (not for erosion control), clonal materials were distributed in many entrepreneurial schemes throughout the tropics in many countries. And because vetiver is distributed (even today) by root cuttings, it appears that a single clone (which we are denoting as 'Sunshine' based on accession priority) has been planted around the world and essentially all of the vetiver used today for erosion control seems to be from the single Sunshine clone."

(1)http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf (2)Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.

DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm

Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

3.01

No evidence of naturalization.

3.02

No evidence.

3.03

No evidence.

3.04

(1)'Sunshine' vetiver is a traditional, non-fertile variety with a 200 year history in Louisiana that is propagated vegetativelybecause it does not produce viable seeds. It was officially released from observation by the Plant Material Center inGolden Meadow, Louisiana in 1995. Refer to http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/lapmc/releases.html The SouthEastern Exotic Pest Plant Council, declared in May 2001 that ‘Sunshine’ vetiver is acceptable, i.e., non-invasive, for usein the southeastern region of the US. Refer to: www.se-eppc.org/fslist.cfm.See also http://user.aol.com/vetivernet/vip/dnadiv.htm or contact Mark Dafforn at mdafforn@nas.edu for furtherinformation." (2)"Is vetiver grass invasive? The south Indian cultivar of Vetiver zizanioides has over time evolved into a domesticated variety was introduced by the colonial powers and migrating Indian labor to most of the world’s tropical countries, and has been present in these countries for probably 200 years. Nowhere has it ever been reported to be invasive, infact it is so well behaved that it has never moved from where planted by man, and manycitizens do not even know of its existence in their own countries. The reason why it isnot invasive and is not considered a weed is because often the plant never flowers, orwhen it does it produces seeds that are sterile. Further the plant reproduces vegetativelythrough root/tiller division, and is not stoloniforous – thus its roots do not invade adjacentareas, as do grasses like, Bermuda, Kikuyu, and couch grass." ... "As far as I am aware the clonal sterile form of Vetiveria zizanioides is pretty wellbehaved. Make sure however that anyone decides to use this species only uses clonal cuttings from a reliable supplier. We have seeding plants in Western Australia around Geraldton that were planted by people who thought they had researched adequately butwere not aware of the difference between seed and clonal cuttings!!!" "The cultivars of vetiver used in Australia, South Africa, Portugal, Italy, China, Centraland South America, Vietnam, Indonesia, Madagascar, West Indies and East and WestAfrica, amongst others, under the Vetiver Systems program are nearly always of the“Sunshine” derived genotype. This means that they all exhibit non-invasive characteristics as well as the other characteristics of vetiver grass for conservation andslope stabilization. It also means that except for some minor use adjustment to specificareas and needs this genotype can be used reliably without repetitive research." (3)"The evaluation of weedy potential of vetiver ... The number of viable seeds from a single plant after one growth season was estimated to be 2500 for the Northern India type vetiver and 20 for the Southern India type vetiver. The number of viable seed produced by the Northern India type is enormous and willmake significant population after its invasion thus should not allowed to be used inTaiwan. The result of the Southern India type vetiver observed in this study exhibited contradictory with the rest of the world, which was investigated in the following method of reproduction study. Even though the Southern India type vetiver did produce viable seed, the number could be considered insignificant to make ecological impact." [Although the study did not particularly use the 'Sunshine' cultivar, note that 'Sunshine is a cultivar of the South Indian type].
[No evidence of 'Sunshine' being an environmental weed].

(1) http://www.vetiver.org/TVN_disaster%20mitigation%20brochure.pdf (2)http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf (3)http://www.vetiver.org/AUS_weediness.pdf

3.05

Chrysopogon aciculatus is listed as a serious weed in Australia, Borneo and Melanesia.

Holm, LeRoy G., Pancho, Juan V., Herberger, James, P. and Plucknett, Donald L. 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Krieger Publishing Company. Malabar. Florida. Pg 86.

4.01

No evidence of such structures.

http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=VEZI80

4.02

Not allelopathic.

http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=VEZI80

4.03

No evidence

4.04

(1)Low palatability for browsing and grazing animals. (2)"It stands very heavy grazing, especially in semi-arid areas of India."

(1)http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=VEZI80 (2)http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/data/PF000340.HTM

4.05

No evidence

4.06

Probably not - "Pest problems associated with Vetiver Grass - “The main pest problems reported with vetiver have been few: fungal dieback fromHelminthosporium and Bipolaris, bacterial leaf blight from Xanthomonas, sooty moldssuch as Meliola, stem borers and white grubs, maize cyst and root-knot nematodes,termites, and rats. The genus is susceptible to smuts from Tilletiaceae and fromUstilaginaceae. There is even an ascomycotina fungus called Phyllachora vetiveriicolaindigenous to Gorakhpur, India. - members of the genus cause leaf-spotting (black spot,tar spot) and they may be genus specific (there are species named P. sorghi, P.sacchari,P. maydis; P. eucalypti, P. ficiuum, etc.).None of these pathogens have caused a failure of vetiver in the field, nor is thereevidence of transfer to other crops. There are no reported cases of vetiver serving as areservoir for pests or plagues, even when infected plants grow next to hosts. Vetiver hasbeen cultivated on a large scale as an essential-oil plant for centuries,

http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf

4.07

Probably not - "Toxicity none."

http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=VEZI80

4.08

Probably yes - "Vetiver grass is a “climax plant,” which survives conditions under which other plants cannot live. It will tolerate prolonged drought, fire, flood, submergence, and extreme temperatures from -15C to 55C (in Australia) and higher (in India andAfrica). In some cases it may be the only plant to survive. Its ability to regrow quickly after being affected by drought and especially by fire, as well as by frost, salt, and other adverse soil conditions, and is unequalled by other plants." [A grass species, usually not grown solitary but in larger groups like hedges, can grow under hot dry conditions].

http://www.vetiver.org/TVN_disaster%20mitigation%20brochure.pdf

4.09

(1)"It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade." (2)"Light Requirements: Sun " (3)"Vetiver grassprovides, apart from its uses under the Vetiver System, many associated and usefulattributes. As a pioneer species it enables native species to establish on degraded sites where under normal circumstances it is impossible for the latter to develop. In mostinstances where these ”natives” have become well established they “shade out” and displace the vetiver. Vetiver grass provides habitat, shelter and forage to fauna. It provides a habitat to beneficial parasitic pests such as the parasitic wasp." (4)"Most vetiver grow well in full sunlight. Shade tolerant varieties are in need for utilization in forests." - This powerpoint presentation data suggests that vetiver can withstand some shade.

(1)http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Vetiveria+zizanioides (2)http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/ornamental_grass/vetiveria_zizanioides.html (3)http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:EOxqo2Ntvu8J:www.vetiver.org/
KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf+%22chrysopogon+zizanioides
%22+sun%7Cshade%7Clight&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us (4)http://
www.vetiver.org/ICV4-ppt/EB13-PP.pdf

4.1

(1)"It grows in a variety of soils, from heavy clays to dune sand, and will tolerate windy coastal conditions." (2)"It will grow on sandy loams to clay soils, on strongly acid to slightly alkaline soils with a pH range from 4-7.5, but prefers neutral to slightly alkaline soils."

(1)http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Chrysopogon_zizanioides&type=treatment (2)http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/data/PF000340.HTM

4.11

No evidence - A perennial bunch grass.

http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=VEZI80

4.12

No evidence

5.01

5.02

A perennial bunch grass.

http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=VEZI80

5.03

5.04

6.01

"The south Indian cultivar of Vetiver zizanioides has over time evolved into a domesticated variety was introduced by the colonial powers and migrating Indian labor to most of the world’s tropical countries, and has been present in these countries for probably 200 years. Nowhere has it ever been reported to be invasive, infact it is so well behaved that it has never moved from where planted by man, and manycitizens do not even know of its existence in their own countries. The reason why it isnot invasive and is not considered a weed is because often the plant never flowers, orwhen it does it produces seeds that are sterile. Further the plant reproduces vegetativelythrough root/tiller division, and is not stoloniforous – thus its roots do not invade adjacentareas, as do grasses like, Bermuda, Kikuyu, and couch grass."

http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf

6.02

(1)"In 1989, the PMC began an assembly of available vetiver accessions for increase,distribution, and testing by cooperating universities, state and federal agencies, and otherPMC's. The assembly included one accession from Sunshine, Louisiana (9054943). Thisaccession has fragrant roots and produces no viable seed." ... "After aslow start, the planting slips rapidly increased and over 20,000 plants were produced bythe end of the growing season. Seed producing accessions planted June 1, 1989, alsogrew rapidly and produced a heavy seed crop. The Sunshine accession did not produceseedheads." (2)"… Sunshine is divergent from the main north Indian group, and 'Grafton' is even more divergent. It is interesting to note that, apparently only 'Sunshine' is nonseeding, although 'Grafton' has low seed fertility …." (3)"The vetivergrass used in this study,‘Sunshine’, does not produce viable seed. This is advantageous in that this plant is notnative to Florida, and doesn’t show any potential for becoming invasive. On the otherhand, vetivergrass will not spread or colonize an area. Once a plant dies and is washeddownslope, there is none to replace it."

(1)http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/mspmctn9404.pdf (2)Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al. DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998. (3)http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/flpmcprgully.pdf

6.03

Probably not as 'Sunshine' does not reproduce sexually. [However hybridization does occus in other sexually producing cultivars of vetiver - "Abstract: Of the 11 hybrids of V. zizanioides (Linn.) Nash tested during 1976-1978, 'Pusa Hybrid 14' gave the highest yield of root and oil content on soils having average fertility and pH 7 to 8, but it degenerated quickly on saline-alkali soils. On the basis of stability analysis the highest root yield was recorded in 'Pusa Hybrid 26' (13.49 q/ha) and the highest mean oil percentage (average of 6 environments) in 'Pusa Hybrid 8' (1.727). All the hybrid selections were significantly superior to the local control (7.55 q/ha of roots; oil content 1.048%) and had greater adaptability to a wide range of soil pH." - Ref - Title: STABILITY ANALYSIS OF ROOT YIELD AND OIL CONTENT IN VETIVER VETIVERIA-ZIZANIODES Author(s): SETHI K L; GUPTA R; MEHRA R B Source: Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 51 (5) : 299-301 1981.]

6.04

"The cultivated vetiver has been presumed selections from its wild seedy relatives with human intervene. The lack of fertility is based on field observation where no seed has been collected from cultivated vetiver worldwide. Unexpected fertile seeds were found in the nursery of Experiment Farm of National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. The method of reproduction ofvetiver was studied to answer the phenomenon. Thirteen out of 171 seedy vetiver genotypes were selected randomly in the nursery to study the difference of fertility between open- and self-pollination treatments. Field observation indicated the vetiver is protogyny with pistil extrudes out of the floret about three days before stamens for both cultivated and wild vetiver intemperature 25-35 degree of centigrade. The open pollinated inflorescence has almost 100% of seed set while the self-pollinated inflorescence has less than 1% of fertility with no difference tozero statistically. This traditional experiment provided an evidence for the out-crossing and self-incompatibility nature of the pollination behavior of vetiver." ['Sunshine cultivar does not produce viable seeds but the method of reproduction is fundamentally that of outcrossing in vetivers].

http://www.vetiver.com/ICV4pdfs/EB04.pdf

6.05

Probably not - a grass species.

6.06

(1)"Because C. zizanioides does not spread vegetatively and many cultigens have low or no seed production, contour hedges can be planted around cultivated fields or engineering structures without fear of invasion." (2)"… The reason why it isnot invasive and is not considered a weed is because often the plant never flowers, orwhen it does it produces seeds that are sterile. Further the plant reproduces vegetatively through root/tiller division, and is not stoloniforous – thus its roots do not invade adjacent areas, as do grasses like, Bermuda, Kikuyu, and couch grass." (3)"The vetivergrass used in this study,‘Sunshine’, does not produce viable seed. This is advantageous in that this plant is notnative to Florida, and doesn’t show any potential for becoming invasive. On the otherhand, vetivergrass will not spread or colonize an area. Once a plant dies and is washeddownslope, there is none to replace it." [Suggests lack of vegetative spread specifically in the 'Sunshine' cultivar'.]

(1)http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Chrysopogon_zizanioides&type=treatment (2)http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_3DG.pdf (3)http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/flpmcprgully.pdf

6.07

7.01

Probably not - no evidence that the species grows in heavily trafficked areas.

7.02

Probably yes - widely used as an herbal medicine as well as an ingerdient in some Inidan herbals shampoos and creams.

http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/aboutayurveda/cahv.htm

7.03

Probably not - "… Sunshine is divergent from the main north Indian group, and 'Grafton' is even more divergent. It is interesting to note that, apparently only 'Sunshine' is nonseeding, although 'Grafton' has low seed fertility …."

Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.
DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm
Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

7.04

(1)'Sunshine' cultivar is not known to produce seeds. Even among the cultivars that produce seed - (2)"...Yes, vetiver would be least invasive compared to other weedy grasses. Although, quite a good amount of fertile seeds are formed in vetiver, but they hardly invade distant areas because the seeds are dropped near the mother plant itself and do not disperse by air to long distances. The seed is relatively large in vetiver without any feathery support, thus limiting its long distance dispersal by air."

(1)Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.
DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm
Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998 (2)http://www.vetiver.org/TVN_Vziz_v_Vnig.htm

7.05

No evidence

7.06

Probably not - a grass. Also, 'Sunshine' cultivar of vetiver is not known to produce seeds.

Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.
DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm
Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

7.07

'Sunshine' cultivar of vetiver is not known to produce seeds. Also no evidence that the roots (root cuttings) which are used for propagation on 'Sunshine' have any means of attachment.

Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.
DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm
Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

7.08

No evidence

8.01

"… Sunshine is divergent from the main north Indian group, and 'Grafton' is even more divergent. It is interesting to note that, apparently only 'Sunshine' is nonseeding, although 'Grafton' has low seed fertility …."

Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.
DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm
Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

8.02

Probably not - "… Sunshine is divergent from the main north Indian group, and 'Grafton' is even more divergent. It is interesting to note that, apparently only 'Sunshine' is nonseeding, although 'Grafton' has low seed fertility …."

Adams, R. P.; Zhong, M.; Turuspekov, Y., et al.
DNA fingerprinting reveals clonal nature of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Gramineae and sources of potential new germplasm
Molecular Ecology 7 (7) : 813-818 July, 1998

8.03

"Tolerance to herbicides - In India it can be controlled with dalapon at 1117 kg/ha, or bromacil at 17-33 kg/ha."

http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/data/PF000340.HTM

8.04

Probably yes - "Vetiver grass is a “climax plant,” which survives conditions under which other plants cannot live. It will tolerate prolongeddrought, fire, flood, submergence, and extreme temperatures from -15C to 55C (in Australia) and higher (in India andAfrica). In some cases it may be the only plant to survive. Its ability to regrow quickly after being affected by drought andespecially by fire, as well as by frost, salt, and other adverse soil conditions, and is unequalled by other plants."

http://www.vetiver.org/TVN_disaster%20mitigation%20brochure.pdf

8.05

Don’t know.


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